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Terminology Parts of Fire Basic Tactics Drop Patterns. Example Review Ten Principles of Retardant Application. Aircraft Strategy &Tactics. By Steve Hubbard. “SEE” WHAT YOU CAN DO!. “ SEE ” = S afe (Always assure safety before any other goal)

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aircraft strategy tactics
Terminology

Parts of Fire

Basic Tactics

Drop Patterns

Example

Review Ten Principles of Retardant Application

Aircraft Strategy &Tactics

By

Steve Hubbard

see what you can do
“SEE” WHAT YOU CAN DO!
  • “SEE” =
    • Safe (Always assure safety before any other goal)
    • Effective (….actually putting the fire out is nice….but safety first)
    • Efficient (….only if Safe & Effective)
strategy
STRATEGY
  • Mental process for establishing incident objectives and priorities.
  • What do you want to save…and how bad?
tactics
TACTICS
  • A series of tasks or operations done to achieve an objective.
  • How are you actually going to do the job?
parts of a fire

FINGER

HEEL(ORIGIN)

ANCHOR POINT

Parts of a Fire

BOTTOM LINE: This is how the fire fighters describe things.

HEAD

LEFT

SHOULDER

RIGHT

SHOULDER

SPOT

FIRE

ISLAND

POCKET

LEFT

FLANK

RIGHT

FLANK

ROAD

amoeba fire
“AMOEBA” Fire

N

E

W

S

For this fire, you may have to resort to Cardinal directions

when talking to ground folks.

downhill fire
Downhill Fire

Firefighters still relate to

left and right.

ROAD

LEFT

FLANK

RIGHT

FLANK

DOWNHILL

SLOPE

Head is still the most active

part of fire.

fire attack tactics
FIRE ATTACK TACTICS
  • THREE BASIC METHODS
    • INDIRECT
    • DIRECT
    • PARALLEL
indirect attack
INDIRECT ATTACK

USUALLY A LARGE-FIRE TACTIC

A DISTANCE AWAY

RIDGE LINE

UTILIZE NATURAL BARRIERS

BURN OUT BETWEEN

direct attack
DIRECT ATTACK

WORKING DIRECTLY ON FIRE EDGE

“ONE FOOT IN THE BURN – ONE IN THE GREEN”

parallel attack
PARALLEL ATTACK

MOVE OFF FIRE EDGE A SHORT DISTANCE

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF LIGHT FUELS/BARRIERS

MOST DANGEROUS METHOD FOR FIREFIGHTERS

STRAIGHTEN

RAGGED EDGE

FIRE OUT

BETWEEN

tactics1
TACTICS
  • EVERY FIRE IS DIFFERENT
    • DIRECT? INDIRECT?
  • ANCHOR POINT =
    • WORK FROM IT
  • HONEST EVALUATION =
    • COMMUNICATE WITH THE GROUND!
aircraft patterns
FLANKING

TANDEM AHEAD

TANDEM BEHIND

HOOK

NARROW “VEE”

WIDE “VEE”

ANGLE TIE-IN

SPOT FIRE

PRE-TREAT

ANGLE-OUT

COOLING CONVECTION COLUMN

SPOT FIELD COVER

AIRCRAFT PATTERNS
flanking
FLANKING

GOOD METHOD = STARTS FROM ANCHOR POINT

USED ON FAST RUNNING FIRES

CONSERVATIVE

tandem ahead
TANDEM AHEAD

PROVIDES MOST ASSISTANCE TO GROUND FORCES

OFTEN TO SUPPORT

DOZERS IN HEAVY

BRUSH

ANCHOR DONE BY

GROUND TROOPS

tandem behind
TANDEM BEHIND

ASSIST GROUND FORCES TO HOLD HASTILY DONE LINES

PICKS UP SPOTS AND

SLOP-OVERS

MOST OFTEN USED WHEN

HIGH VALUES ARE BEING

PROTECTED

ANCHOR MADE BY GROUND

TROOPS IS RE-ENFORCED

slide17
HOOK

USED OFF FLANKING PATTERN

TO CUT ACROSS HEAD

FLANKING CONTROL

COULD HAVE BEEN

DONE BY GROUND

FORCES

narrow vee
NARROW “VEE”

QUICKLY CATCH HEAD OF SMALL FIRE

AGGRESSIVE METHOD

ADDITIONAL DROPS,

HOSELAYS, OR LINE

CONSTRUCTION MUST

BE ASSURED TO

FOLLOW SOON!

ASK YOURSELF: HOW SOON

WILL IT GET ANCHORED?….AND

WHO IS GOING TO DO IT?

wide vee
WIDE “VEE”

A LITTLE OUT IN FRONT – “JUST TO SLOW IT DOWN”

OFTEN USED SIMILAR

TO CREW HOT-SPOTTING

= BUYING TIME

ANCHOR PROBLEM IS WORSE –

BECAUSE YOU EXPECT EVEN

A LONGER DELAY

BEFORE ANCHORING!

angle tie in
ANGLE TIE-IN

FREQUENTLY USED METHOD THAT PROVIDES A

DEFENDABLE TIE TO THE ANCHOR POINT

PLAN USUALLY WOULD INCLUDE FIRING OUT

TO THE BARRIER

spot fire
SPOT FIRE

USUALLY NO PLACE TO ANCHOR

OBJECTIVE IS TO HOLD UNTIL GROUND

FORCES ARRIVE

TRY TO DROP FROM TWO DIRECTIONS

FOR BETTER COVERAGE (SHADOWING)

PUTTING AN “X” ON IT WORKS WELL ALSO

pre treat
PRE-TREAT

USED TO WIDEN A NATURAL BARRIER

PROVIDES BACKFIRE SUPPORT

HELPS TO LOWER SPOT FIRE SPREAD POTENTIAL

PLACE OUTSIDE OF MAIN LINE AND ON LEE SIDE

RIDGE LINE

angle out
ANGLE OUT

USED WHEN YOU CAN’T GET TO BOTTOM (STAIR-STEP?)

TELL GROUND FORCES WHAT YOU DID

NOT PERFECT – BUT LEAVES SOMETHING FOR THE

FIRE TO BUMP AND HOLD LONGER

RIDGE LINE

cooling convection
COOLING CONVECTION

TO STOP HAVING TO CHASE SPOT FIRES ALL DAY

DROP TIGHT TO BACKSIDE AND ALLOW

CONVECTION WIND TO DRAW IT IN

GROUND SIDE-VIEW

SPOT FIELD

HEAD IS MOVING

spot field cover
SPOT FIELD COVER

MULTIPLE LINES SPACED NARROWER THAN THE

FIRE-RUNNING DISTANCE NEEDED TO BUILD UP

SPOTTING HEADS FROM NEW SPOT FIRES

(USE NATURAL BARRIERS TOO)

REQUIRES LARGE NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT BE QUICKLY

COMMITTED AT SAME TIME AND THIS WILL FORCE

PLACING LINES A LONG DISTANCE OUT IN FRONT

THIS IS A

NEW TACTIC

PLEASE

SHARE ANY

STORIES

example
EXAMPLE

WIND

COW PATH

ROAD

example1
EXAMPLE

WIND ON RETURN

COW PATH

ROAD

10 principles of retardant application

10 PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION

From The National Wildfire Coordinating Group

principles of retardant application 1
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION1.
  • DECIDE TACTICS = DIRECT OR INDIRECT?
    • SIZE-UP
    • RESOURCES AVAILABLE
principles of retardant application 2
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION2.
  • ESTABLISH ANCHOR POINT
    • WORK FROM IT
principles of retardant application 3
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION3.
  • USE PROPER DROP HEIGHT
    • UP/DOWN WIND?
    • LIGHT/HEAVY GPC?
principles of retardant application 4
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION4.
  • APPLY PROPER COVERAGE LEVELS
    • EFFECTIVENESS VERSUS WASTE
principles of retardant application 5
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION5.
  • DROP DOWNHILL AND DOWN-SUN WHEN FEASIBLE….BUT:
    • SAFE EXIT IS KEY = LEVEL RUN OVER RISING TERRAIN INTO WIND MAY BE AS GOOD
principles of retardant application 6
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION6.
  • DROP INTO THE WIND FOR BEST ACCURACY….BUT:
    • “SEE” = BE SAFE BEFORE TRYING TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE(or EFFICIENT)
principles of retardant application 7
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION7.
  • DO HONEST EVALUATIONS OF AIR ATTACK EFFORTS
  • TALK TO GROUND WITH SAME HONESTY
principles of retardant application 8
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION8.
  • GO DIRECT ONLY WHEN GROUND SUPPORT IS AVAILABLE
    • OR WHEN EXTINGUISHMENT IS PROBABLE
principles of retardant application 9
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION9.
  • PLAN DROPS SO THEY CAN BE EXTENDED OR INTERSECTED EFFECTIVELY
principles of retardant application 10
PRINCIPLES OF RETARDANT APPLICATION10.
  • MONITOR EFFECTIVENESS AND ADJUST AS NEEDED….OR
    • SHUT IT DOWN?
    • SHOW-TIME ANYWAY?
slide39

Aircraft Strategy &Tactics

  • Terminology
    • Parts of Fire
  • Basic Tactics
  • Drop Patterns
  • Example
  • Review Ten Principles of Retardant Application