AIRCRAFT RAMP INSPECTION • OBJECTIVE. • This chapter provides guidance for sampling the quality of maintenance and the degree of compliance with the operator's maintenance procedures on in service airline aircraft.
AIRCRAFT RAMP INSPECTION • GENERAL • CAA Inspection Personnel should be familiar with the type of aircraft to be inspected before performing the inspection. This can be accomplished by on the job training. • Time constraints may require that two or more inspectors perform this task in exterior and interior phases.
COORDINATION • Coordination between AW and Ops inspectors may be required • Use of a Identification Card should relieve airport security problems.
INITIATION AND PLANNING • This task is normally scheduled as part of an AWI work program. • Planning. The ramp inspection provides the AWI with a good opportunity to ensure that the compliance dates and requirements of new ADs etc have been met. Inspectors should become familiar with current service difficulty information.
MAINTENANCE RECORDING • All maintenance action must be recorded. • Appropriate procedures should be in the CMM. • All mechanical discrepancies must be either corrected or deferred using the methods identified in the CMM. • MEL procedures must be followed. • Any repetitive MEL procedures must be accomplished and signed off in the maintenance log.
OTHER DEFERRED MAINTENANCE • Operators may use a system to monitor items that have been inspected previously and found to be within serviceable limits. These items are still airworthy, yet warrant repair at a later time or when items no longer meet serviceable limits. This method of deferral may require repetitive inspections to ensure continuing airworthiness of the items. Examples of items that are commonly deferred in this manner are fuel leak classifications, dent limitations, and temporary (airworthy) repairs. (cont.)
DEFERRED MAINTENANCE • Passenger convenience item (not safety/airworthiness related) deferrals should be handled in accordance with the operator's program. • The maintenance program approved for an operator must provide for prompt and orderly repairs of inoperative items.
CABIN INSPECTION • This inspection should be performed, when possible, without disturbing the loading and unloading of passengers. The inspection can still be performed when some passengers are on board during through flights, but good judgment must be exercised by inspecting areas away from the passengers. • Any discrepancy should be brought to the attention of the flight crew or appropriate maintenance personnel immediately.
CARGO/COMBINATION CONFIGURED AIRCRAFT • Inspection results have disclosed instances of significant aircraft structural damage resulting from careless loading of cargo, such as: • Torn or punctured liners, indicating hidden damage • Damaged rollers, ball mats, etc., causing structural damage to the floors • Corrosion and structural damage caused by improper handling of some hazardous materials
PERFORMING THE INSPECTION • This inspection must be accomplished without interfering with the turnaround of the aircraft. The following list of items are just some of the activities that could cause a delay if interfered with. • Boarding and deplaning of passengers • Servicing • Fueling • Maintenance • Baggage handling • Action to correct any deficiencies must be in accordance with the CMM.
PROCEDURES • Initiate Ramp Inspection in Accordance with CAA Work Program • Prepare for the Inspection • Review the operator's schedule, select the flight to be inspected, and determine the type of equipment and ground time. • Determine if any recent problem areas have been identified for that type of aircraft. • Determine if recent regulatory changes and AD requirements affect the aircraft to be inspected.
INTERVIEW FLIGHT CREW. • Introduce yourself to the flight crew and describe the purpose and scope of the inspection. • Inspect Aircraft Maintenance Records • Ensure that all open discrepancies from the previous flight are resolved per the operator's manual, prior to departure of the aircraft. • Review the maintenance records to determine if repetitive maintenance problems exist that might indicate a trend
CONDUCT EXTERIOR INSPECTION, • Accompany a flight crewmember during the exterior inspection, and inspect the following, as applicable: • Landing gear and wheel well areas. Check for: • Any indication of wear, chafing, cracks, dents • Structural integrity of gear and doors • Hydraulic leaks • Tire condition & pressure • Wheel installation and safety locking devices • Brake wear, line security, leaks • Corrosion
FUSELAGE AND PYLONS. • Inspect the following: • Structure for cracks, corrosion, dents, or other damage • Fasteners (loose, improper, missing) • Condition of radome • Condition of pitot tubes • Static ports (cleanliness and obstructions) • Stall warning devices and other sensors • Antennas (security and indications of corrosion)
FUSELAGE AND PYLONS. • Inspect the following: • Lavatory servicing areas (evidence of fresh blue water streaks) • Cargo compartments for integrity of fire protective liners (no holes or unapproved tape used for repairs) • Emergency exit identification/markings • Registration marking (legibility) • All lights (general condition, broken lenses, etc.)
WINGS AND PYLONS. • Inspect the following: • Structure for cracks, corrosion, dents, damage • Leading edge (dents and/or damage in line with engine inlets) • Leading edge devices (when open, actuator leaks, general condition of lines, wires, and plumbing)
WINGS AND PYLONS. • Inspect the following: • All lights (general condition, broken lenses, etc.) • Flaps (cracks, corrosion, dents, and delamination) • Flap wells (general condition of lines, wires, and plumbing) • Static eliminators (number missing) • Ailerons and aileron tabs (cracks, corrosion, dents, delamination) • Missing, loose, or improperly secured access door/inspection panels and blowout panels
ENGINES. • Inspect the following: • Intake for fan blade damage, and oil leaks • Ring cowl for missing or loose fasteners • Cowling doors for security and proper fit • Lower cowling for evidence of fluid leaks • Exhaust for turbine and tailpipe damage, and evidence of fluids • Reverser doors for stowage and security, and evidence of leaks • Access doors for security
PROPELLERS. • Inspect the following: • Leading edge of propeller for cracks, dents, and other damage • Deicer boots for signs of deterioration and security • Spinners for security, cracks, and evidence of fluid leaks
EMPENNAGE. Inspect the following: • Leading edge for dents • All lights (general condition, broken lenses, etc.) • Missing static discharge eliminators • Elevator, rudder, and tabs (cracks, corrosion, dents, and delamination) • Elevator and rudder power unit for evidence of hydraulic leaks
Ground safety. Inspect the following: • Positioning of support vehicles • Fueling of aircraft, to include the following: • Refueling pressure • Condition of refueling unit (leaks, filter change dates, exhaust system, etc.) • Grounding • Fire protection • General fueling procedures
GENERAL CONDITION OF RAMP Check the following: • Provisions for grounding • Foreign objects on ramp • Fuel spills • General housekeeping/cleanliness • Passenger control • Fire protection
BAGGAGE. • Observe loading and unloading of baggage compartments to include the following: • Baggage restraining system • Load distribution
MAINTENANCE RECORDING - MEL Ensure that all MEL items are deferred in accordance with the operator's approved MEL. • Review the operator's approved MEL to determine that conditions, procedures, and placarding requirements are carried out to correctly defer specific items. • Note the date when an item was first deferred to determine if the maximum allowed length of deferral was exceeded. Accomplish this by examining maintenance record pages, the deferred maintenance list, or deferred maintenance placards or stickers.
MAINTENANCE RECORDING • Ensure that an airworthiness release, maintenance record entry, or appropriate approval for return to service has been made after the completion of maintenance. • Ensure that the maintenance record contains the following for each discrepancy: • Description of the work performed or a reference to acceptable data • Name or other positive identification of the person approving the work • Name of the person performing work
INTERIOR INSPECTION GUIDELINES • Examine the airworthiness and registration certificates. Ensure Airworthiness and registration certificates are current and valid and both certificates contain the same model, serial, and registration numbers.
FLIGHT DECK INSPECTION. • Inspect the following: • Instrument security and range markings • Windows (delamination, scratches, crazing, and general visibility) • Emergency equipment,Seal on medical kit • Seat belts and shoulder harnesses • Check the following if using cockpit jumpseat: • Jump seat oxygen system - turn regulator on and select 100% oxygen • Interphone system • Ensure that the jump seat is serviceable including restraint
CABIN INSPECTION. • Inspect the cabin to include the following: • Lavatory. Ensure the following: • Fire extinguisher system is installed in sealed trash containers • Smoke detection system is installed • Rubbish containers are sealed according to applicable AD(s) • "No Smoking" placards are posted • Ashtrays are available outside the lavatory
FLIGHT ATTENDANT SEATS. • Pull the jump seat down to ensure seat retracts (those in the path of exits) • Inspect seat belts for general condition
CABIN EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT. All equipment requiring periodic inspections should have an inspection date marked on it. Inspect the following: • Flight attendant flashlight holder • Slide containers, to ensure containers are properly marked for content. Check pressure of slide inflation bottle if visible. • Medical kit/First aid kit • Emergency oxygen (proper pressure and security)
CABIN EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT. Inspect the following for security & general condition: • Megaphone(s) • Fire extinguishers (security, pressure, seal,) • Liferaft /life preservers, storage markings • Emergency briefing cards (random sample) • General condition of emergency floor path lighting system • Placement/legibility of all "Emergency Exit" signs • Placarding for location of all emergency equipment
PASSENGER SEATS. • Ensure the following: • Seats adjacent to emergency exits do not block exit path • Seats are secure in seat rack (random sample) • Seat breakover pressure is in accordance with operator's maintenance program (random sample) • "Fasten Seat Belt During Flight" placards are in view from all seats • Seat belts (random sample)
GALLEYS/SERVICE CENTERS. Inspect the following: • Trash bin lids for fit and seal • Storage compartment restraints • Stationary cart tiedowns • Lower lobe equipment/restraints • Lift operation • Galley supply stowage
Overhead baggage compartments. • Check for weight restriction placards and the doors for proper latching, when applicable
INSPECT CARGO COMPARTMENT • Ensure the following: • Cargo compartment fire protection is appropriate for its classification • Cargo liner is free from tears and/or punctures. If these are noted, inspect structure behind liner for damage. Ensure sealing tape is proper type and in good condition. • Cargo door is free of fluid leaks and structural damage • Fuselage door structure and sill are free of damage
INSPECT CARGO COMPARTMENT • Ensure the following: • Smoke detectors are in satisfactory condition • Lighting is operable and protective grills are installed • Cargo flooring is free from structural or other damage • Pallet positions/compartments are placarded for position identification and weight limitations
INSPECT PALLET SYSTEM • Ensure the following: • mats are serviceable, e.g., no broken or missing balls • Forward, aft, and side restraints are serviceable • Roller assemblies are secure and have no missing or broken rollers
CARGO COMPARTMENT - GENERAL • Ensure the 9 g forward restraint net is serviceable, if applicable. • Ensure that cargo restraints for bulk loaded cargo are adequate, if applicable. • Inspect cabin mounted equipment. • Inspect fire extinguishers for inspection due dates and pressure. • Inspect load manifest for Hazardous Material. If present, determine crew knowledge of location and labeling of hazardous materials and if proper paperwork is on board.
DEBRIEF CREW • Inform the flight crew or appropriate personnel that the inspection has been completed. Discuss the discrepancies brought to the operator's attention during the inspection. • Examine Maintenance Record Entries. Ensure that the operator has recorded all discrepancies noted during this inspection. If time is available, monitor the operator's corrective actions
ANALYZE FINDINGS. • Analyze each finding to determine if the discrepancies are the result of improper maintenance and/or missing or inadequate maintenance/inspection procedures
INSPECTION OUTCOMES • File report Form • Completion of this task can result in the following: • Appropriate enforcement action when analysis of the findings disclose improper maintenance. • Written notification to the operator of the necessary changes to the manual, when analysis of the findings disclose missing or inadequate maintenance/inspection procedures.
FUTURE ACTIVITIES. • Based on inspection findings, determine if closer surveillance, additional enforcement, other job tasks, and/or additional coordination between Central Office and Regional Offices are required to regain compliance.