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Visual Inspection of Self-Pierce Riveting Systems for the Automotive Industry. By Paul Johnson (p.johnson1@ljmu.ac.uk). Supervisors: Dr Francis Lilley, Professor David Burton. Self-Pierce Riveting Why SPR? SPR Problems Current Technology Technology Problems Project Objectives

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slide1

Visual Inspection of Self-Pierce RivetingSystems for the Automotive Industry

By Paul Johnson (p.johnson1@ljmu.ac.uk)

Supervisors: Dr Francis Lilley, Professor David Burton.

overview
Self-Pierce Riveting

Why SPR?

SPR Problems

Current Technology

Technology Problems

Project Objectives

Project Status

Conclusions & Future Work

A problem to solve… (this means you!)

Overview
self pierce riveting
Mechanical joining process / aluminium

Handheld, pedestal or automated

High speed, single operation, no prep

Fully pierce top materials & partially pierce bottom material

Self-Pierce Riveting

Joint creation process.

self pierce riveting4
Self-Pierce Riveting

A cross section of a successful SPR joint. A semi-tubular rivet joining three sheets of aluminium.

Animated Joint creation process.

C-frame which accommodates the tooling.

slide5

Self-Pierce Riveting

  • Doidge Type 120 Riveting Machine
    • impact riveting machine
    • semi-tubular, tubular, bifurcated
    • steel, brass, copper, aluminium and light alloy
  • semi-tubular steel rivets
    • 3.1mm diameter / 7.4mm length
    • aluminium grade 1200 (BS1470:1987)

Doidge Type 120 Riveting Machine

why spr
Why SPR?

reduce emissions

lighter vehicles

smaller engines

EU emissions regs

directive 70/220/EEC

category M1

passenger vehicles

8 seat max

EU Emissions Directive 70/220/EEC.

why spr7
Why SPR?

Traditional joining / steel body

new light weight vehicles (ally)

RSW is impractical for aluminium

lower resistance than steel

consumes more energy due to heat loss

SPR is a viable solution

lower power consumption

creates an air/water tight joint

high speed

no insertion hole and material alignment

pierce and fasten in one operation

Spot weld machine.

Sample spot weld.

spr problems
SPR Problems
  • Poor joint access / dual access
    • C-frame, die, punch
  • Quality control of the joint
    • Predominantly destructive (chiselling, pulling)
    • Handheld ultrasonic probe
  • Physical Teardown
    • One car, ~5000 joints, two men, 30 days
    • Time, money, delayed quality control
slide9

Current Technology

  • Driven by…
    • increased automation
    • dissimilar materials
    • Decline of skilled/cheap labour force
  • HENROB Ltd
    • Industry leader for SPR systems
    • BMW, Audi, Jaguar, Volvo, Chrysler, Mercedes, Freightliner and Hyundai.
slide11

Project Status (Rivet Status)

  • Applying camera to
  • nose for rivet status:
  • bespoke software
  • identifies light intensity
  • requires calibration to ambient lighting
  • pre-process

inspection point

intensity values

decision

Intensity profile of a missing rivet.

Intensity profile of a single rivet.

Intensity profile of a double rivet.

slide12

Project Status (Mat. Depth)

  • Applying camera and laser to
  • identify material depth
  • physical filters
  • image processing
  • identifies laser stripe
  • thickness in mm and px
  • pre-process
  • requires joint calibration
    • lens
    • distance from material
    • ambient lighting / threshold

A 6mm stack of sheet aluminium.

As above, with neutral density and red filters.

Screenshot of the process monitoring software.

As above, with threshold and laser line identification.