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PAAL Training FBA. Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed., BCBA. FBA: Functional Behavior Assessment . To create hypotheses about the functional relationship between environmental stimuli-behaviors Why? Avoid/Eliminate ineffective interventions To develop effective interventions

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paal training fba

PAAL TrainingFBA

Kaori G. Nepo, M.Ed., BCBA

fba functional behavior assessment
FBA: Functional Behavior Assessment
  • To create hypotheses about the functional relationship between environmental stimuli-behaviors
  • Why?
    • Avoid/Eliminate ineffective interventions
    • To develop effective interventions
    • Ensure the effectiveness of interventions
three term contingency
Three Term Contingency

A(SD) – B(R) – C(SR+/SR-/SP+/SP-)

Antecedent: a stimulus which occurs before a behavior

Behavior/ Response: movement or action by an individual

Consequences: a stimulus which is produced by a behavior

four term contingency
Four Term Contingency

MO A-B-C

Motivating Operation (MO): the environmental changes that alter the reinforcing value of stimulus (and the frequency of a behavior)

  • EO: Establishing Operation
  • AO: Abolishing Operation
function vs topography
Function vs. Topography
  • Function: purpose of behaviors
  • Topography: how the behavior looks like
  • Behaviors look same but different functions
    • C.f. tantrums for attention or escape
  • Behaviors look different but same functions
    • C.f. manding
function
Function
  • Positive Reinforcement: SR+
    • Social Attention
    • Tangible
    • Automatic Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement: SR-
    • Social Negative Attention

(Escape/Avoidance)

    • Automatic Negative Reinforcement
assessment vs analysis
Assessment vs. Analysis
  • Gather information
  • Form hypotheses
  • Not systematic arrangement of environmental stimuli
  • Natural settings
  • Use information
  • Test hypotheses
  • Systematic manipulation of environmental stimuli
  • Contrived/simulated settings
conduct fba
Conduct FBA
  • Operational Definition of the target behavior and measurement
  • Gather information (indirect and direct assessment)
  • Interpret information
  • Test hypothesis (Behavior Analysis)
  • Develop interventions
operational definition
Operational Definition

: define the target behavior….

  • Objective: Observable and measurable
  • Clarity: unfamiliar observers can identify
    • Including clear description of topography
  • Completeness: clear boundaries, time frame
    • Beginning and ending
    • IRT/ break between behaviors
data collection
Data Collection
  • Direct Measurement
    • Permanent Products (written sample)
  • Direct Observational Recording
    • Event Recording
    • Duration Recording
    • Latency Recording
    • Inter Response Time (IRT)
    • Interval Recording (whole or partial)
    • Momentary Time Sampling
gather information
Gather Information
  • Indirect FBA
  • Direct observation
  • What to look for…
    • Standardized test
    • Medial history
    • Maladaptive behaviors
    • Setting, triggers, reinforcers
    • Social history
    • Previous FBA/interventions
indirect fba
Indirect FBA
  • Collect useful information from individuals and/or significant others through…
    • Interview
    • Checklists
    • Rating Scales
    • Questionnaires
    • Record review
indirect fba13
Indirect FBA
  • Advantage:
    • Convenient
    • Can collect useful information to form hypotheses
  • Limitation:
    • Accuracy
    • Subjective
    • Biased
    • Not data based
    • Low IOA
direct descriptive fba
(Direct) Descriptive FBA
  • ABC Continuous Recording
  • ABC Narrative Recording
  • Scatter Plots
direct descriptive fba15
(Direct) Descriptive FBA
  • Direct observation in the natural environments
  • Advantage:
    • Collect useful information in the context
    • Do not interrupt routines
  • Limitation:
    • Difficulties to pinpoint correlation
    • May be misleading (c.f. intermittent reinforcement)
    • Accidental correlation
example
Example

Jon is 12 years old and diagnosis with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism. He attended both regular education classrooms and a special education classroom with one-on-one aide. He exhibits “chin hitting” across environments.

ABC assessment was conducted in both environments and it was found that he is most likely to exhibit chin hitting during difficult tasks and in larger classrooms.

interpret information
Interpret Information
  • Draw hypotheses from information collected
  • Write in ABC format
behavior analysis
Behavior Analysis
  • Experimental manipulation of antecedents and consequences to test hypotheses
  • Advantage:
    • Clear demonstration of relation among variables
  • Limitation:
    • Temporarily reinforce maladaptive behaviors
    • Counterintuitive
    • Not effective for less frequent behaviors
    • Contrived settings
    • Time consuming
behavior analysis20
Behavior Analysis
  • Possible functions based on functional behavior assessment (c.f. contingent attention, contingent escape, alone, access to reinforcers)
  • each condition will be presented systematically one at a time and collect data on target behaviors
  • Create graphs
  • Visually inspect graphs
examples
Examples

Motivating Operation (MO) and Reinforcement Contingencies for functional analysis

develop interventions
Develop Interventions
  • Alter Antecedents
    • Change MO
    • Change SD
  • Alter Consequences
    • SR+
    • SR-
  • Teach or replace with functionally equivalent behaviors
fba example
FBA example

Tommy is 15 years old male student who is diagnosed with autism. He is non-verbal and use signs and pictures to communicate his needs with occasional prompts. Tommy exhibits whining (high pitch and non-contextual vocalization) across settings and people, but more likely with his mother.

Interview and ABC Continuous Recording Data suggested that he is more likely to exhibit whining when his mother is talking with others.

slide28
FBA
  • Form Hypotheses
develop interventions30
Develop Interventions
  • Contingent Tangible
    • DRI/DRA (verbal/non-verbal)
    • DRO
    • NCR
  • Contingent Attention
    • DRI/DRA (verbal/non-verbal)
    • Extinction
    • NCR
review 1
Review #1

What is FBA?

Functional Behavior Assessment

review 2
Review #2

Behavior Analysis is different from Functional Behavior Assessment because…

  • Experimental manipulation
  • Use information vs. gather information
  • Test hypotheses
  • Contrived settings/ interruption of routines
review 3
Review #3

Examples of indirect FBA are…

  • Interview
  • Checklists
  • Rating Scales
  • Questionnaires
  • Record review
review 4
Review #4

What are some of limitations of Indirect FBA?

  • Subjective
  • Accuracy
  • Biased
  • Low IOA
  • Not data based
review 5
Review #5

Examples of (Direct)Descriptive FBA are...

  • ABC Continuous Recording
  • ABC Narrative Recording
  • Scatter plots
review 6
Review #6

What are advantages of (Direct) Descriptive FBA?

  • Collect useful information in the context
  • Do not interrupt routines
review 7
Review #7

Explain how to test hypotheses…

  • Systematic manipulation of environmental stimuli (antecedents and consequences)
  • Graphing
  • Visual inspection
review 8
Review #8

Why is it necessary to conduct FBA?

  • Avoid/Eliminate ineffective interventions
  • To develop effective interventions
  • Ensure the effectiveness of interventions
review 9
Review #9

What are functions of behaviors?

  • Positive Reinforcement SR+
    • Social Attention
    • Tangible
    • Automatic Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement SR
    • Social Negative Attention

(Escape/Avoidance)

    • Automatic Negative Reinforcement
review 10
Review #10

Explain Three Term Contingency…

A(SD) – B(R) – C(SR+/SR-/SP+/SP-)

Antecedent: a stimulus which occurs before a behavior

Behavior/ Response: movement or action by an individual

Consequences: a stimulus which is produced by a behavior