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OBJECTIVES Identify the parts of speech Determine the part of speech by analyzing the use of those words in sentences. PowerPoint Presentation
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The Parts of Speech. The Eight Parts of Speech: Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection . OBJECTIVES Identify the parts of speech Determine the part of speech by analyzing the use of those words in sentences.

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slide1

The Parts of Speech

The Eight Parts of Speech:

Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective

Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection

  • OBJECTIVES
  • Identify the parts of speech
  • Determine the part of speech by analyzing the
  • use of those words in sentences.
  • (All English-Speaking people should understand the basic components of their language.)
slide2

The Noun

Noun:

a word used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea

EXAMPLES

Persons: architect travelers family Tiger Woods

Places: restaurant islands wilderness New Orleans

Ideas: education beliefs ambition Utopianism

In addition, nouns may be

COMMON and PROPER, CONCRETE and ABSTRACT, COLLECTIVE,and COMPOUND

slide3

The Pronoun

Pronoun:

word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun

EXAMPLES

* Angelo borrowed a hammer and some nails. He will return them tomorrow.

* Several of the students have entered the essay contest because they are

extremely interested in the topic.

TYPES OF PRONOUNS

Personal Pronouns (refers to person speaking, spoken to, or spoken about)

First Person: I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours

Second Person: you, your, yours

Third Person: he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs

Reflexive (refers to subject) and Intensive (emphasizes)

First Person: myself, ourselves

Second Person: yourself, yourselves

Third Person: himself, herself, itself, themselves

slide4

Demonstrative Pronouns (point out)

this that these those

This is our favorite song by Ella Fitzgerald.

The apples I picked today taste better than these.

Interrogative Pronouns (introduce questions)

who whom which what whose

What is the answer to the last algebra problem?

Whose car is parked outside?

Relative Pronouns (introduce subordinate clauses)

that which who whom whose

The house thatyou saw is a historical landmark.

She is the woman who is running for mayor.

Indefinite Pronouns (refers to person, place, or thing not specifically named)

all another any anybody anyone anything both each either

everybody everyone everything few many more most much

neither nobody none no one nothing one other several

some somebody someone something such

I have packed everythingwe will need for the trip.

Has anyone seen my binoculars?

slide5

The Adjective

Adjective:

word used to modify a noun or a pronoun

Tells what kind? Which one? How many? How much?

brown shoes those cars ten boxes some water

large animal this street several books less time

narrow road first step fewer mistakes more space

nice person last one many students enough money

Most frequent adjectives are the articles: a, an, the

Adjective orPronoun?

Which museum did you visit?

Which did you visit?

Leslie Marmon Silko wrote these stories.

Leslie Marmon Silko wrote these.

slide6

The Verb

Verb:

word used to express action or a state of being

TYPES OF VERBS

Action Verb (expresses physical or mental activity)

Physical write sit arise describe receive

Mental remember think believe consider understand

Transitive Verb (takes an object –

a word that tells who or what receives the action)

Everyone in the school cheered the football team. (Direct Object)

Nikki Giovanni writespoetry. (Direct Object)

Intransitive Verb (does not take an object)

The gorilla smiled.

Suddenly, the child next to the door screamed.

slide7

Linking Verbs:

connects the subject with a word that identifies or describes it

(sometimes called state-of-being verbs)

COMMONLY USED LINKING VERBS

am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being

be, can be, may be, might be, must be, shall be

will be, could be, should be, would be, has been, have been

had been, shall have been, will have been, could have been,

should have been, would have been

appear grow seem stay

become look smell taste

feel remain sound turn

LINKING: The soup tastedspicy. (Predicate Adjective)

ACTION: We tasted the soup. (Direct Object)

LINKING: She feltgood about her presentation. (Predicate Adjective)

ACTION: The explorers feltrain on their faces. (Direct Object)

LINKING: The milk smelledsour. (Predicate Adjective)

ACTION: I smelled the milk to see whether it wasfresh.

(Direct Object) (Predicate Adjective)

slide8

The Verb Phrase:

consists of a main verb and at least one helping verb (auxiliary verb)

COMMONLY USED HELPING VERBS

Forms of Be:am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being

Forms of Have: has, have, having, had

Forms of Do:do, does, doing, did

Others: may, might, must

can, could

shall, should

will, would

slide9

The Adverb

Adverb:

word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

Tells How? When? Where? To what extent? (How much or how often?)

EXAMPLES

Adverbs Modifying Verbs

Marian Anderson sangmagnificently. (How?)

Marian Anderson sangearlier. (When?)

Marian Anderson sangthere. (Where?)

Marian Anderson sangfrequently. (To what extent?)

Adverbs Modifying Adjectives

The players are exceptionally skillful. (To what extent?)

The documentary about global warming was quite interesting.

(To what extent?)

Adverbs Modifying Other Adverbs

Cheetahs can run extremely fast. (To what extent?)

Andre reacted to the news rather calmly. (To what extent?)

slide10

Let's practice a bit. . .

Identify these parts: noun, pronoun, and adjective, adverb with word modified.

My aunt Laurette is just about the nicest (1.)grown-up (2.) that I know.

NOUN PRONOUN

I do (3.) not get to see her (4.) very often because she (5.) works in Chicago,

ADVERB: do get ADVERB: often VERB

but when she comes (6.) home to visit, I’m in heaven. (7.) What do I like about her?

ADVERB: comes PRONOUN

For one thing, we share (8.) many of the same interests. Both of us play the

PRONOUN

piano, (9.) sew our clothes, and love to make (10.) puns. She is also a

VERB NOUN

sympathetic listener and lets me tell about (11.) myself without interrupting

PRONOUN

or criticizing me. Laurette shares (12.) her own (13.) career stories with me, and

PRONOUN ADJECTIVE: stories

sometimes she even asks me for (14.) some advice. A day with Laurette (15.) is

ADJECTIVE: advice VERB

sometimes silly and sometimes (16.) serious, but it’s always a delight. As you

ADJECTIVE: day (Predicate Adjective)

can see in (17.) this picture of the two of us at the park, I always feel relaxed

ADJECTIVE: picture

with Laurette. She’s living proof that a person (18.) can go through adolescence

VERB

and (19.) still emerge as a happy, (20.) highly competent adult!

ADVERB: emerge ADVERB: competent

slide11

The Preposition

Preposition:

word used to show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word

in the sentence

A preposition always introduces a phrase.

The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase is called the object of

The preposition.

EXAMPLES

The playful puppy ran beside me.

The playful puppy ran toward me.

The playful puppy ranaround me.

The playful puppy ran past me.

The playful puppy ran after me.

The playful puppy ran behind me.

The playful puppy ran in front of me.

slide12

COMMONLY USED PREPOSITIONS

About beneath in through

Above beside inside throughout

Across besides into to

After between like toward

Against beyond near under

Along but (meaning of underneath

Among “except”) off until

Around by on unto

As down out up

At during outside upon

Before except over with

Behind for past within

Below from since without

PREPOSITION: We drove around the parking lot.

ADVERB:We drove around for a while.

COMMONLY USED COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS

According to because of in spite of

Along with by means of instead of

Apart from in addition to next to

Aside from in front of on account of

As of in place of out of

slide13

The Conjunction

Conjunction:

word used to join words or groups of words

TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinating Conjunctions (connects words or groups of words

used in the same way)

and but for nor or so yet

We found a bat and a glove.

Will Rogers once claimed, “My forefathers didn’t come over on the Mayflower,

but they met the boat.”

Correlative Conjunctions (pairs of conjunctions that connect words

or groups of words used in the same way)

both . . . and not only . . . but (also)

either . . . or whether . . . or neither . . . nor

Both athletes and singers must train for long hours. (connects two words)

Either your fuel line is clogged, or your carburetor needs adjusting.

(connects two sentences)

slide14

Subordinating Conjunctions(begins a subordinate clause and

connects it to an independent clause)

COMMONLY USED SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

After because since when

Although before so that whenever

As even though than where

As if how that wherever

As much as if though whether

As though in order that unless while

As well as provided until why

We arrived late because our train was delayed.

Sherlock Holmes listened quietly while Dr. Watson explained his theory.

Notice: When the subordinate conjunction and clause begins the sentence,

it must be set off with a comma (like this sentence).

While Dr. Watson explained his theory, Sherlock Holmes listened quietly.

slide15

Let's practice a bit more. . .

  • Find these parts of the sentence:
  • Prepositions and Conjunctions (Label Type)
  • Eli Whitney not only invented the cotton gin but also manufactured
  • muskets and other weapons.
  • Nowadays we take the idea of interchangeable parts for granted,
  • but it was a revolutionary concept at that time.
  • For example, when a rifle is constructed with interchangeable parts,
  • a defective part can be replaced quickly and easily with an identically
  • made piece.
  • Before Eli Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts,
  • manufacturers had to employ many skilled workers.
  • Although the new technology benefited manufacturers, it cost many
  • workers their jobs, and this has been the case with most technological
  • advances.
slide16

Let's check answers!

  • Prepositions and Conjunctions (Label Type)
  • Eli Whitney not only invented the cotton gin but also manufactured
  • muskets and other weapons. not only. . . but also =CORRELATIVE
  • and = COORDINATING
  • Nowadays we take the idea of interchangeable parts for granted,
  • but it was a revolutionary concept at that time. COORDINATING
  • For example, when a rifle is constructed with interchangeable parts,
  • a defective part can be replaced quickly and easily with an identically
  • made piece. When = SUBORDINATING and = COORDINATING
  • Before Eli Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts,
  • manufacturers had to employ many skilled workers. SUBORDINATING
  • Although the new technology benefited manufacturers, it cost many
  • workers their jobs, and this has been the case with most technological
  • advances. Although = SUBORDINATING and = COORDINATING
slide17

The Interjection

Interjection:

word used to express emotion

It has no grammatical relation to other words in the sentence.

It is set off from the rest of the sentence with an exclamation point (for strong

emotion) or with a comma (for mild emotion).

EXAMPLES

Ah Hey Ouch Whew

Yikes Oh Well Wow

Ouch! That hurts!

Well, I think you should apologize to me.

slide18

Determining the Part of Speech

Determining the part of speech of a word is determined

by the way the word is used in a sentence.

EXAMPLES

The coach decided that the team needed more practice.

The girls practice every Saturday afternoon.

They will have a practice session after school on Wednesday.

Winston-Salem, North Carolina, is the home of the talented

Writer Maya Angelou.

The last home game will be played tomorrow night.

We decided to stay home.

Celine has won the citizenship award before.

The two candidates debated each other before the election.

Read the directions before you begin answering the questions.

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

Adverb

Preposition

Conjunction

(SUBORDINATING)

slide19

Let's put it all together!

Identify the following parts of speech:

Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection

(N) (Pron) (V) (Adj) (Adv) (Prep) (Conj) (Interj)

Suddenly the radio announcer broke in on the (1.) musical selection. “A

(2.) funnel cloud (3.) has been sighted. (4.) All people should take immediate

(5.) precautions!” (6.) Those were the (7.) last words Denise Moore heard

(8.) before the electricity went off and the (9.) terrible roar came closer. (10.) She and her two children (11.) ran to the basement (12.) quickly.

When they (13.) emerged forty-five minutes later, (14.) they weren’t sure what they might see. (15.) Oh, the terrible wind had (16.) truly performed freakish tricks! It had driven a fork (17.) into a brick up to the handle. It had sucked the (18.) wallpaper from a living room wall (19.) but had left the picture hanging

(20.) there intact. It (21.) had driven a blade of grass into the (22.) back of Denise Moore’s neighbor. Nevertheless, the citizens of the (23.) town considered

(24.) themselves lucky because (25.) no one had been killed.

Let's check answers!

  • Adj 2. Adj 3. V 4. Adj 5. N 6. Pron 7. Adj 8. Conj 9. Adj 10. Pron
  • 11. V 12. Adv 13. V 14. Pron 15. Interj 16. Adv 17. Prep 18. N 19. Conj
  • 20. Adv 21. V 22. N 23. N 24. Pron 25. Pron
slide20

Final Test

  • Identify the following parts of speech:
  • Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection
  • (N) (Pron) (V) (Adj) (Adv) (Prep) (Conj) (Interj)
  • Hey, nobody who goes to the movies fairly often can fail to notice
  • Interj Pron Adv
  • this exciting trend!
  • Adj
  • In 1991 alone, nineteen feature films directed by African Americans
  • Adj Prep
  • were released.
  • V
  • Whether you know it or not, that’s more than there were in the whole
  • previous decade.
  • Conj Conj Conj Adj
  • 4. The success of Spike Lee’s films, which include the blockbuster Do the
  • Pron
  • Right Thing, inspired other young black directors to create their own movies
  • about the black experience.
  • Prep Pron
  • 5. The absorbing stories and real-life settings of these films attract many
  • V
slide21

thousands of moviegoers, not just African Americans.

  • N
  • Who are some of the black directors building their careers in Hollywood
  • Pron Adj
  • nowadays?
  • Adv
  • Rising starsinclude Charles Lane, Mario Van Peebles, John Singleton, Bill
  • N V
  • Duke, and Matty Rich.
  • N
  • Their success helps create job opportunities for all types of black film
  • Adj Adj
  • workers, including hairdressers, actors, stuntpersons, cinematographers,
  • N
  • and sound technicians.
  • For example, the crew that worked along with John Singleton on his 1991
  • Pron Prep
  • film Boyz N the Hood was 90 percent black!
  • Adj
  • After you’ve read these facts, maybe you’ll watch the movie listings in your
  • Conj V
  • local newspaper for some upcoming films from young black directors.
  • Adj Adj