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The Parts of Speech. The Eight Parts of Speech: Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection . OBJECTIVES Identify the parts of speech Determine the part of speech by analyzing the use of those words in sentences.
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The Eight Parts of Speech:
Noun Pronoun Verb Adjective
Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection
a word used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea
Persons: architect travelers family Tiger Woods
Places: restaurant islands wilderness New Orleans
Ideas: education beliefs ambition Utopianism
In addition, nouns may be
COMMON and PROPER, CONCRETE and ABSTRACT, COLLECTIVE,and COMPOUND
word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun
* Angelo borrowed a hammer and some nails. He will return them tomorrow.
* Several of the students have entered the essay contest because they are
extremely interested in the topic.
TYPES OF PRONOUNS
Personal Pronouns (refers to person speaking, spoken to, or spoken about)
First Person: I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours
Second Person: you, your, yours
Third Person: he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs
Reflexive (refers to subject) and Intensive (emphasizes)
First Person: myself, ourselves
Second Person: yourself, yourselves
Third Person: himself, herself, itself, themselves
this that these those
This is our favorite song by Ella Fitzgerald.
The apples I picked today taste better than these.
Interrogative Pronouns (introduce questions)
who whom which what whose
What is the answer to the last algebra problem?
Whose car is parked outside?
Relative Pronouns (introduce subordinate clauses)
that which who whom whose
The house thatyou saw is a historical landmark.
She is the woman who is running for mayor.
Indefinite Pronouns (refers to person, place, or thing not specifically named)
all another any anybody anyone anything both each either
everybody everyone everything few many more most much
neither nobody none no one nothing one other several
some somebody someone something such
I have packed everythingwe will need for the trip.
Has anyone seen my binoculars?
word used to modify a noun or a pronoun
Tells what kind? Which one? How many? How much?
brown shoes those cars ten boxes some water
large animal this street several books less time
narrow road first step fewer mistakes more space
nice person last one many students enough money
Most frequent adjectives are the articles: a, an, the
Which museum did you visit?
Which did you visit?
Leslie Marmon Silko wrote these stories.
Leslie Marmon Silko wrote these.
word used to express action or a state of being
TYPES OF VERBS
Action Verb (expresses physical or mental activity)
Physical write sit arise describe receive
Mental remember think believe consider understand
Transitive Verb (takes an object –
a word that tells who or what receives the action)
Everyone in the school cheered the football team. (Direct Object)
Nikki Giovanni writespoetry. (Direct Object)
Intransitive Verb (does not take an object)
The gorilla smiled.
Suddenly, the child next to the door screamed.
connects the subject with a word that identifies or describes it
(sometimes called state-of-being verbs)
COMMONLY USED LINKING VERBS
am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being
be, can be, may be, might be, must be, shall be
will be, could be, should be, would be, has been, have been
had been, shall have been, will have been, could have been,
should have been, would have been
appear grow seem stay
become look smell taste
feel remain sound turn
LINKING: The soup tastedspicy. (Predicate Adjective)
ACTION: We tasted the soup. (Direct Object)
LINKING: She feltgood about her presentation. (Predicate Adjective)
ACTION: The explorers feltrain on their faces. (Direct Object)
LINKING: The milk smelledsour. (Predicate Adjective)
ACTION: I smelled the milk to see whether it wasfresh.
(Direct Object) (Predicate Adjective)
consists of a main verb and at least one helping verb (auxiliary verb)
COMMONLY USED HELPING VERBS
Forms of Be:am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being
Forms of Have: has, have, having, had
Forms of Do:do, does, doing, did
Others: may, might, must
word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Tells How? When? Where? To what extent? (How much or how often?)
Adverbs Modifying Verbs
Marian Anderson sangmagnificently. (How?)
Marian Anderson sangearlier. (When?)
Marian Anderson sangthere. (Where?)
Marian Anderson sangfrequently. (To what extent?)
Adverbs Modifying Adjectives
The players are exceptionally skillful. (To what extent?)
The documentary about global warming was quite interesting.
(To what extent?)
Adverbs Modifying Other Adverbs
Cheetahs can run extremely fast. (To what extent?)
Andre reacted to the news rather calmly. (To what extent?)
Identify these parts: noun, pronoun, and adjective, adverb with word modified.
My aunt Laurette is just about the nicest (1.)grown-up (2.) that I know.
I do (3.) not get to see her (4.) very often because she (5.) works in Chicago,
ADVERB: do get ADVERB: often VERB
but when she comes (6.) home to visit, I’m in heaven. (7.) What do I like about her?
ADVERB: comes PRONOUN
For one thing, we share (8.) many of the same interests. Both of us play the
piano, (9.) sew our clothes, and love to make (10.) puns. She is also a
sympathetic listener and lets me tell about (11.) myself without interrupting
or criticizing me. Laurette shares (12.) her own (13.) career stories with me, and
PRONOUN ADJECTIVE: stories
sometimes she even asks me for (14.) some advice. A day with Laurette (15.) is
ADJECTIVE: advice VERB
sometimes silly and sometimes (16.) serious, but it’s always a delight. As you
ADJECTIVE: day (Predicate Adjective)
can see in (17.) this picture of the two of us at the park, I always feel relaxed
with Laurette. She’s living proof that a person (18.) can go through adolescence
and (19.) still emerge as a happy, (20.) highly competent adult!
ADVERB: emerge ADVERB: competent
word used to show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word
in the sentence
A preposition always introduces a phrase.
The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase is called the object of
The playful puppy ran beside me.
The playful puppy ran toward me.
The playful puppy ranaround me.
The playful puppy ran past me.
The playful puppy ran after me.
The playful puppy ran behind me.
The playful puppy ran in front of me.
About beneath in through
Above beside inside throughout
Across besides into to
After between like toward
Against beyond near under
Along but (meaning of underneath
Among “except”) off until
Around by on unto
As down out up
At during outside upon
Before except over with
Behind for past within
Below from since without
PREPOSITION: We drove around the parking lot.
ADVERB:We drove around for a while.
COMMONLY USED COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS
According to because of in spite of
Along with by means of instead of
Apart from in addition to next to
Aside from in front of on account of
As of in place of out of
word used to join words or groups of words
TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating Conjunctions (connects words or groups of words
used in the same way)
and but for nor or so yet
We found a bat and a glove.
Will Rogers once claimed, “My forefathers didn’t come over on the Mayflower,
but they met the boat.”
Correlative Conjunctions (pairs of conjunctions that connect words
or groups of words used in the same way)
both . . . and not only . . . but (also)
either . . . or whether . . . or neither . . . nor
Both athletes and singers must train for long hours. (connects two words)
Either your fuel line is clogged, or your carburetor needs adjusting.
(connects two sentences)
connects it to an independent clause)
COMMONLY USED SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
After because since when
Although before so that whenever
As even though than where
As if how that wherever
As much as if though whether
As though in order that unless while
As well as provided until why
We arrived late because our train was delayed.
Sherlock Holmes listened quietly while Dr. Watson explained his theory.
Notice: When the subordinate conjunction and clause begins the sentence,
it must be set off with a comma (like this sentence).
While Dr. Watson explained his theory, Sherlock Holmes listened quietly.
word used to express emotion
It has no grammatical relation to other words in the sentence.
It is set off from the rest of the sentence with an exclamation point (for strong
emotion) or with a comma (for mild emotion).
Ah Hey Ouch Whew
Yikes Oh Well Wow
Ouch! That hurts!
Well, I think you should apologize to me.
Determining the part of speech of a word is determined
by the way the word is used in a sentence.
The coach decided that the team needed more practice.
The girls practice every Saturday afternoon.
They will have a practice session after school on Wednesday.
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, is the home of the talented
Writer Maya Angelou.
The last home game will be played tomorrow night.
We decided to stay home.
Celine has won the citizenship award before.
The two candidates debated each other before the election.
Read the directions before you begin answering the questions.
Identify the following parts of speech:
Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection
(N) (Pron) (V) (Adj) (Adv) (Prep) (Conj) (Interj)
Suddenly the radio announcer broke in on the (1.) musical selection. “A
(2.) funnel cloud (3.) has been sighted. (4.) All people should take immediate
(5.) precautions!” (6.) Those were the (7.) last words Denise Moore heard
(8.) before the electricity went off and the (9.) terrible roar came closer. (10.) She and her two children (11.) ran to the basement (12.) quickly.
When they (13.) emerged forty-five minutes later, (14.) they weren’t sure what they might see. (15.) Oh, the terrible wind had (16.) truly performed freakish tricks! It had driven a fork (17.) into a brick up to the handle. It had sucked the (18.) wallpaper from a living room wall (19.) but had left the picture hanging
(20.) there intact. It (21.) had driven a blade of grass into the (22.) back of Denise Moore’s neighbor. Nevertheless, the citizens of the (23.) town considered
(24.) themselves lucky because (25.) no one had been killed.
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