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Hofstede’s dimensions of culture

Individualism: The degree of individual or group orientation Power Distance: The level of preference for equality or inequality within groups Certainty (uncertainty avoidance): The preference for risk versus structure Achievement (masculinity/femininity): The relative degrees of relationship versus task orientation.  This dimension also tracks the relative masculine and feminine influences in the workplace.


Country index values range from 11 for Austria (small power distance) to 94 for Philippines (large power distance)


Major Differences between Small Power Distance and Large Power Distance Cultures

Source: Ting-Toomey (1999: 70)


IDV and National Wealth


* Iran

* Japan


* Israel





National Wealth


Culture of Arab: Communication

  • Expressive Tone of Voice
  • “Arab cultures tend to value an emotionally engaged, expressive tone of voice when important issues are discussed… According to Nydell (1996) one of the most commonly misunderstood aspects of Arab communication involves the ‘display of anger’. Arabs are not usually angry as they appear to be. Raising the voice, repeating points, even pounding the table for emphasis may sound angry, but in the speaker’s mind, they merely indicate sincerity”
  • (Ting-Toomey, 1999: 122)
  • Overassertive Communication
  • “An Arab feels compelled to overassert in almost all types of communication because others expect him to do so. If an Arab says exactly what he means without the expected assertion, other Arabs may still think that he means the opposite. For example, a simple “No” by a guest to the host’s request to eat more or drink more will not suffice. To convey the meaning that he is actually full, the guest must keep repeating “No” several times, coupling it with an oath such as “By God” or “I swear to God.”
  • (Almaney and Alwan, 1982: 84 cited in Ting-Toomey, 1999: 122)