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EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH. How do you establish causality? what causes something else to occur? Lazarsfeld provided three criteria: 1. Covariation – two are related 2. Time order – cause before outcome 3. Elimination of likely third variables. Establishing causality.

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experimental research
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

How do you establish causality?

  • what causes something else to occur?
  • Lazarsfeld provided three criteria:
    • 1. Covariation – two are related
    • 2. Time order – cause before outcome
    • 3. Elimination of likely third variables
establishing causality
Establishing causality
  • Surveys allow you to test for covariation.
  • Statistical techniques “control” for third variables
  • But experiments offer control over timing
  • Manipulate the Independent Variable and observe the consequences (the Dependent Variable).
    • Select a group of subjects
    • Do something to them
    • Observe the effects
examples of causality questions
Examples of causality questions
  • Night lights
  • The “Mozart effect”

Marketing Research

variables independent and dependent
VARIABLES: Independent and Dependent
  • CAUSE
    • Independent variable
  • OUTCOME
    • Dependent variable

CAUSE

OUTCOME

Marketing Research

a classic experiment
A “classic” experiment
  • Independent and Dependent variables
    • advertising and sales
  • Experimental and Control groups
    • exposed and non-exposed
  • Pre-testing and Post-testing
    • measure attitudes toward product and sales
  • "Blind" to condition
    • Hawthorne effect, placebo effects
experiments
Experiments

Selecting subjects

  • Randomization
    • equal chance of being in control or experimental condition
      • random number table, even-odd, etc.
  • Matching
    • equalizing "important" variables
      • age, education, product use, etc.
experiments7
Experiments

External validity

  • (How generalizable are the findings?)
    • artificiality of the situation
      • the lab setting, white lab coat, etc.
    • sampling issues
      • reliance on college students in experiments
experimental design
Experimental design

Basic

  • O- X - O experimental group
  • O - . - O control group
experimental design9
Experimental design

Solomon 4-group:

O- X - O experimental group (pretest-posttest)

O - . - O control group (pretest-posttest)

. X - O posttest-only experimental group

. . - O posttest-only experimental group

  • attempts to assess sensitization

(from pretesting)

experimental design10
Experimental design

“Factorial” designs

Multiple variables are examined

  • Number of factors
    • One factor (involvement)
    • Two factors (involvement and gender)
  • Number of “levels” for each factor
    • e.g., 2 by 2 design…
    • or 2 (involvement) by 2 (gender) design…

Marketing Research

the end

The End

Marketing Research