Myers Developmental Psychology “Childhood to Death” Life Span Development Mr. McElhaney
IX. Developmental Psychology (7–9%) • Life-Span Approach • Research Methods (e.g., longitudinal, cross-sectional) • Heredity-Environment Issues- Nature vs. Nurture • Developmental Theories- Piaget, Freud, Erikson, • Dimensions of Development: • Physical • Cognitive- Piaget • Social • Moral-Kohlberg, Gilligan • Sex Roles, Sex Differences
Module 49 Gender Development: Pg. 500-508 • Module 50 Parents, Peers and Early Experience: Pg. 508-513 • Module 51 Adolescence: Physical and Cognitive Development Pg. 513--519 • Module 52 Adolescence: Social Development and Emerging Adulthood Pg. 519- • Module 53 Sexual Development Pg. 526-539 • Module 54 Adulthood Physical, Cognitive and Social Development Pg. 539-554
Stuff you need to know • Freud Stage Theory • Erikson Stage Theory • Elkind Adolescent Theory • Marcia Adolescent Theory • Kohlberg- Cognitive/Stage Theory/Moral Development • Gilligan (Gender and Moral Development) • Gender Development • Sex/Gender • Nurture and Gender Roles • Social Learning Theory • Transgender • Changing Parent Child Relationships • Early Maturation • Peer Influence • Gould Adult Development • Levinson-Midlife Crisis • Kubler-Ross • (notes packet) • Death and dying
Freud Psycho Sexual Stages (web) • As we grow and develop we pass through typical stages based on the primary area of pleasure. • If we do not get enough gratification (libido-sexual energy) in that area then a fixation can occur. • Oral (0-1 year) • Anal (1-3 years) • Phallic (3-5-6 years) • Latent (5 or 6 to puberty) • Genital (puberty to adult)
Postpartum Depression • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004481/
Erik Erikson • Personality theorist • Student of Freud • Built on Freud, found that • Early childhood important for development of personality (Life Span approach) • Supported structure of the ID, Ego and Superego- unconscious drives • Believed that the main theme in life was quest for identity
Erikson and Identity Formation • Identity is the major core of personality • Identity is: a stable image of the relation between the self and the social world. • Psycho-social Dilemmas -Major psychological events occur in typical life and can be anticipated.“We all face predictable psychological conflicts as we develop.” Conflicts are between impulses and the Social World • Identity Formation is a life long process • Has 8 stages
Erikson 8 Stages • Each stage has a main a developmental task that must be accomplished to make adaptive progress. • Crisis and conflicts are inherent in each stage • Each stage has demands and possibilities
Erikson Stages • Stage One: first year Trust vs. Mistrust (secure and insecure attachments) • Stage Two: 1-3 years Autonomy vs. shame + doubt • Stage three: 3-5 years Initiative vs. guilt • Stage four: 6- 12 years Industry vs. Inferiority or Adequacy vs. Inadequacy • Stage five: Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion • Stage six: Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation • Stage seven: Middle Adulthood: Generative vs. Stagnation • Stage 8: Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. Despair
Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion • Turbulent period, culturally defined • Between childhood and Adulthood • Physical Development- • Puberty • Sexual Maturation • Developmentally- adolescents are questioning: • Attitudes • “Who am I” • Sometimes there is role confusion • Conflicting roles: student, friend, athlete, worker, son…
Adolescent- high emotion “Romeo and Juliet syndrome” • Rousseau suggests three features: • Instability and emotional conflict-caused by biological maturity • “He becomes deaf to the voice he used to obey…he is a lion in a fervor, • He distrusts his keeper and refuses to be controlled.”
Diversity of Identity:Adolescents have multiple identities. • Ethnic Identity • Family Identity- brother/sister/son/daughter • Social Identity- Peer/social identity • Personal (hidden)
Puberty-Biological Event • Girls- 9-12 years old, begin • Boys- 11-14 years • Hormonal changes • Cause rapid physical and sexual maturity • Immature- social experience, intellectual and knowledge • Identity Formation- puberty- “Time to begin a new self image”
Adolescence transition • Adulthood transition- • Responsibility for oneself • Independent decisions • Financial independence
Gender and Sexual Identity • Sex = Biological Status • Defined by chromosomes • Defined by anatomy • Gender = Socially constructed roles and characteristics by which your culture defines make and female.”
Gender and Culture 503 • Culture is everything shared by a group, language, traditions, religion… • Gender Roles- social expectations that guide men and women’s behavior • They vary over time and place • A Role is a cluster of prescribed actions • The behaviors we expect of those who occupy a particular social position. • USA roles, women- child care, more time • Men- working, less child care • Lots of gender changes comes with anxiety • How do we learn to be male or female? • Gender identity- a person’s sense of being male or female (culture impacts Social Learning, Gender Typing, and Gender Schema (all add up to create gender identity) • Gender identity is distinct from sexual orientation (which is the direction of one’s sexual attraction) • Social Learning Theory • We learn social behaviors by observing and imitating and be rewarded (behavioral) • Children acquire identity by observing and imitating others’ gender linked behaviors and by being rewarded and or punished for acting in certain ways. (generally, but not always true) • Gender Typing- the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. • Cognition also informs gender roles through schema • Schema is a framework for organizing concepts – gender characteristics are a schema • Age 2 awareness of language starts gender schema (he she) • Children learn- clues about gender, language, dress, toys, songs all evolve into male/female stereotypes
How do we learn to be male or female? • Gender identity- a person’s sense of being male or female (culture impacts Social Learning, Gender Typing, and Gender Schema (all add up to create gender identity) • Gender identity is distinct from sexual orientation (which is the direction of one’s sexual attraction) • Social Learning Theory • We learn social behaviors by observing and imitating and be rewarded (behavioral) • Children acquire identity by observing and imitating others’ gender linked behaviors and by being rewarded and or punished for acting in certain ways. (generally, but not always true) • Gender Typing- the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. • Cognition also informs gender roles through schema • Schema is a framework for organizing concepts – gender characteristics are a schema • Age 2 awareness of language starts gender schema (he she) • Children learn- clues about gender, language, dress, toys, songs all evolve into male/female stereotypes
Gender and Social Power • Men are generally more socially dominant • •“dominant, forceful, independent” • •Men are Associated with social dominance • •Groups tend to be lead by men • •Men tend to be more directive/autocratic • •Men utter opinions • •Talk assertive • •Interrupt • •Initiate touch • •Stare • •These behaviors sustain social power • Women generally- submissive nurturing, socially connected • Criticized for political ambition • More democratic • More welcoming of subordinates input in decision making • Interaction, women likely to utter support • Relationship oriented
Resolving Identity Crisis Identity vs. Role Confusion • Search for ones “True Self”= Major task of Adolescences (Erikson) • The Final Developmental Crisis = creating a unified sense of identity <before adulthood> • Crisis and Exploration: (Marcia’s) • We need to achieve a secure sense of personal identity • Use Self Reflection and Observation to assess themselves • Begin to search for alternatives • Adolescents develop both 1. Personal Identity and a 2. Social Identity • Reexamine the choices/influence/desires of their parents • They integrate their past selves with their imagined future selves • Who they are • They assess how they judge others • How others judge them • Adolescents describe the self in abstract terms • Confusion is common and leads to anti-social behavior, sometimes self destructive behavior.
Marcia’s Crisis and • Two steps • 1. break Away form childhood beliefs • 2. Explore alternative status • Foreclosure • Diffusion • Moratorium • Achievement
Identity StatusesMarcia • Diffusionoccurs when there is neither an identity crisis or commitment. • Low level of identity • Low level of search • No idea of identity • No commitment • And not search • May have struggled • Moratoriumis the status of a person who is actively involved in exploring different identities, but has not made a commitment. • Looking and trying on identities • Investigating ideas • Beginning to commit
Identity StatusesMarcia • Foreclosure status is when a person has made a commitment without attempting identity exploration • Blindly accepting identity • Family and culture influences • No search or crisis • Identity achievementoccurs when an individual has gone through an exploration of different identities and made a commitment to one. • Well defined • Expanded in adulthood • Strong ego • Commitment to identity
Identify Yourself • Which Identity Status are you experiencing? • Explain your-self
Early Maturing Girls • May force premature identity formation • Treated as an adult too early • Creates distorted sense of self • Date sooner • More independent • More active in school • In trouble at school • Early sex experiences
Early and Late Maturation • Bodily awareness concerns • Timing of puberty may cause dissatisfaction over body • Early maturation for boys is seen positive in society (seen as athletic, self assured…) • Girls seen as less prestige • Poor self image.. (not in middle school)
Normal Problems Overprotection Sibling Rivalry Childhood Rebellion Divorce Serious Problems Autism Toilet Training disturbances Feeding Disturbances Overeating Anorexia Nervousa Pica Speech Disturbances Delayed speech Telegraphic speech Stuttering Learning Disorders Dyslexia ADHD Conduct Disorders Problems of Childhood
Parents and TeensDavid Elkind (researcher) • Hurried Adulthood- parents push kids too much • Causes too much stress • Parents affect Identity Formation: sometimes creates- conflict • Dating, sex, substance abuse, freedom • Parents should be authoritative- don’t give in or give up
Adolescent PerceptionsElkind • Imaginary Audiences: teens are preoccupied by imagining audiences- • Concerned that they are being watched • Affects behavior • Kids try to control outside impressions
Adolescents and Peer Group • Peer group- • People who share similar • Status • Security-identity • Social Network • During adolescence there is increased identification with peer group • Conformity peaks- • Group pressure can shut down personal growth
See Gardner: Parents and Peers are complimentary • “Parents are more important when it comes to education, discipline,responsibility, orderliness, charitableness, and ways of interacting with authority figures. • Peers are more important for learning cooperation, for finding the road to popularity, for inventing styles of interaction among people of the same age. • Youngsters may find their peers more interesting, but they will look to their parents when contemplating their own futures. Moreover, parents [often] choose the neighborhoods and schools that supply the peers. • “If the vapors of a toxic climate are seeping into a child life, that climate- not just the child needs reforming.”
Sexual Identity • See Myers notes.
Foreclosure: • Close identification with a peer group and or conformity can Shut Down personal Growth = Foreclosure
Kohlberg • Link to good web site • Kohlberg, who was born in 1927, grew up in Bronxville, New York, and attended the Andover Academy in Massachusetts, a private high school for bright and usually wealthy students. He did not go immediately to college, but instead went to help the Israeli cause, in which he was made the Second Engineer on an old freighter carrying refugees from parts of Europe to Israel. • After this, in 1948, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he scored so high on admission tests that he had to take only a few courses to earn his bachelor's degree. This he did in one year. He stayed on at Chicago for graduate work in psychology, at first thinking he would become a clinical psychologist. • However, he soon became interested in Piaget and began interviewing children and adolescents on moral issues. The result was his doctoral dissertation (1958a), the first rendition of his new stage theory.
Kohlberg Essential Question: “How does the amoral infant become capable of moral reasoning?” • Built on the work of Piaget • Kohlberg said the ability to make moral judgments develops in a predictable way during childhood. • “The child can internalize the moral values of his parents and culture and make them his own as he comes to relate these values to a comprehended social order and to his own goals as social self.” • Dependent on Intellectual ability • Moral Reasoning Progresses through three broad levels during childhood and adolescence each has 2 stages • Each stage has a uniquely different kind of moral thinking.
Lawrence Kohlberg • Said that moral thinking is an advanced cognitive skill • He posed the “Heinz Dilemma” • In wich a question is posed: • Should a man steal a drug to save his wife from cancer? • Kohlberg found reasons people give for moral choices change systematically with time.
Kohlberg Moral Development • Questions of conscience solidifies during adolescence • Kohlberg- said- we learn moral values through thinking and reasoning • Moral thinking occurs because of complex analysis of both • 1. Moral obligations to individuals • 2. Moral obligations between social groups. • Found- 3 levels of moral development based on reasoning
Pre-Conventional Children Under age 9 • Stages 1-2 Moral thinking result of consequences • Selfish • Reasoning is NOT based on conventions or rules of society • People are concerned with avoiding punishment • Following rules only when it is to their advantage. • Children judge actions in the light of their own wants and fears • Not social thinking • Punishments and rewards • Exchange of favors
Conventional Reasoning ages 8-19 • Stage 3-4 • People are concerned about other people • Morality is about following rules and conventions • To please others • Duty to family • Duty to marriage vows • Duty to country • To maintain order in society
Post Conventional Reasoning • Young adulthood • After conventional reasoning • Moral judgment is based on personal standards • It is more Abstract based on universal principles of Justice/Equality and respect for human life • Not demands of authority figures or society • Rules are arbitrary • Believe individual rights can sometimes justify violating these laws especially if these laws become destructive.
Kohlberg-6 Stages • People advance through stages differently many don’t reach the end. • Stage 1-2 (Pre-conventional) young children and delinquents • Stage 3-4 (Conventional) group oriented morals • Older children and most adults • Stage 5-6 (Post Conventional) Self directed morals- higher principles • 20% of Adult population • Higher principles
Gilligan Moral Development • CAROL GILLIGAN Link1936-Current • She is currently a Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a principle investigator on numerous studies of girls' and women's development. • In 1970, Gilligan was a research assistant for Lawrence Kohlberg. In outrage and despair of the lack of attention given to women and girls in psychological research, she began to study and research women's development. • During the past 20 years, Gilligan has contributed to research on adolescence, moral reasoning, and conflict resolution. She is best known for her book called In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development.
Females • Moral ideal is to protect enduring relationships • To fulfill human needs • ½ of women respond to justice • The other half were focused on caring
Gilligan Gender and Morality • Femailes • Justice or caring • Found that caring about others or concern for others = moral development • Boys look for justice • Girls look for solution for all parties • Males lag in achieving moral development <they are not that caring> • Best moral choices combine Justice and Caring.
Moral Reasoning can be Encouraged • Consistent modeling of moral reasoning and behaviors by parents an peers • Real life experiences with moral issues • Situational factors that support moral actions
Gould Adolescent – middle age Levinson Adolescent to late adult age Outline Both Gould and Levinsonand compare to Erikson
Roger Gould Development Patterns • “I started my academic psychiatric career as the head of the U.C.L.A. outpatient and community psychiatry department. • That’s where my lifelong focus on normal adult development began. I have written papers and textbook chapters as well as a book for the general public (Transformations, Growth and Change in Adult Life) based on research that I and my colleagues did on the predictable sequence of changing patterns and preoccupations during the adult years.”