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    1. Myers PSYCHOLOGY Module 10 Drugs and Consciousness

    3. Dependence and Addiction Tolerance diminishing effect with regular use Includes neuroadaptation (the brains attempt to counter-act the drug use Withdrawal discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use Although tolerance suggests that a user would require larger and larger amounts of a drug to produce the same effects, the brains, hearts and livers of alcoholics suffer increasingly with increasing amounts of alcohol.Although tolerance suggests that a user would require larger and larger amounts of a drug to produce the same effects, the brains, hearts and livers of alcoholics suffer increasingly with increasing amounts of alcohol.

    4. Addiction Myths Myth: Addictive drugs quickly corrupt Fact: About 10% of people who take psychoactive drugs become addicted. Must people who use drugs for medical purposes do not become addicted. Myth: Addictions cant be overcome voluntarily. Therapy is a must. Fact: Although therapy is helpful for some people, many people recover on their own. Myth: Addiction includes many repetitive, pleasure-seeking activities such as shopping and exercise. Fact: Although some repetitive behaviors can become compulsive and dysfunctional, addiction should not be used as an all-purpose excuse.

    5. Psychoactive Drugs Depressants drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions alcohol, barbiturates, opiates slow body functions

    6. Psychoactive Drugs Alcohol Depressant that affects motor skills, judgment, and memory reduces self awareness Apparent stimulant effects with low doses actually result from suppressing brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions. Like all drugs, makes it more likely for you to act on urges you feel when sober. Low doses decrease sympathetic nervous system activity and promote relaxation. High doses cause slow reactions, slurred speech, and decreased skill performance, as well as general CNS depression potentially leading to death. Disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memories. Memory impairment occurs from inability to transfer memories from the intoxicated to the sober state could be due to the fact that intoxication impairs REM sleep which seems necessary for fixing the days experience into permanent memories. Like other drugs, the expectations of the user can influence the users experience. Memory impairment occurs from inability to transfer memories from the intoxicated to the sober state could be due to the fact that intoxication impairs REM sleep which seems necessary for fixing the days experience into permanent memories. Like other drugs, the expectations of the user can influence the users experience.

    7. Psychoactive Drugs Barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment Includes drugs like Nembutal and Seconal that can be used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety. Can be deadly when combined with alcohol Alcohol and barbiturate potentiate each other or increase one anothers effects.

    8. Psychoactive Drugs Opiates opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety highly addictive When repeatedly flooded with an artificial opiate the brain stops producing its own opiates.

    9. Psychoactive Drugs Stimulants drugs that excite neural activity caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine and Ecstasy speed up body functions Use followed by a crash into fatigue, headaches, irritability and depression.

    10. Psychoactive Drugs Amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes speed

    11. Effects of nicotineEffects of nicotine

    12. Warning: Smoking will Kill You (from thetruth.com) About 1 out of every 5 deaths in the US can be attributed to tobacco products. 1 out of 3 smokers are estimated to eventually die from a tobacco-related disease. Over 50,000 people a year die from secondhand smoke in the US alone. Tobacco kills more Americans than AIDS, drugs, homicides, fires, and auto accidents combined. In 1990, 72 million bottles of a popular mineral water were voluntarily recalled because of small traces of benzene. The smoke from one pack of unfiltered cigarettes has as much benzene as 169 bottles of the contaminated water. Cigarette smoke contains 69 chemical compounds that are known cause cancer. In 1989, millions of cases of imported fruit were banned after a small amount of cyanide was found in just two grapes. There's thirty-three times more cyanide in a single cigarette than was found in those two grapes. 23.5% of U.S. adults smoke (24.3% of you European American and African American men; 40.8% of American Indians and Alaskan Natives). Only 4% of smokers who try to quit on their own, and 27-30% of those who use nicotine replacement are successful. Smoking causes chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer. 23.5% of U.S. adults smoke (24.3% of you European American and African American men; 40.8% of American Indians and Alaskan Natives). Only 4% of smokers who try to quit on their own, and 27-30% of those who use nicotine replacement are successful. Smoking causes chronic bronchitis, emphysema and lung cancer.

    13. Smoking Resources Smoking Facts: http://www.thetruth.com Quitting smoking: http://my.webmd.com/medical_information/condition_centers/smoking_cessation/default.htm People whove quit both heroine and nicotine say quitting nicotine is harder. of Americans who have ever smoked have quit, and 90% did so on their own.People whove quit both heroine and nicotine say quitting nicotine is harder. of Americans who have ever smoked have quit, and 90% did so on their own.

    14. Psychoactive Drugs Cocaine Causes a rush of euphoria lasting 15 to 30 minutes and followed by a crash. effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation coca leaves chewing causes small amounts to slowly enter the bloodstream. Powder - sniffed Crack most potent form; injected or smoked. Causes a faster, more intense high and more intense crash. 5% of high school seniors reported having tried cocaine during the past year of these smoked crack The crash after crack wanes after several hours but the returns several days later. Monkeys have become so addicted to cocaine that will press a level more than 12K times to gain each use of cocaine. Can cause emotional disturbance, suspiciousness, convulsions, cardiac arrest, or respiratory failure.5% of high school seniors reported having tried cocaine during the past year of these smoked crack The crash after crack wanes after several hours but the returns several days later. Monkeys have become so addicted to cocaine that will press a level more than 12K times to gain each use of cocaine. Can cause emotional disturbance, suspiciousness, convulsions, cardiac arrest, or respiratory failure.

    15. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. When the level of cocaine drops, the absence of these neurotransmitters produces a crash.Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. When the level of cocaine drops, the absence of these neurotransmitters produces a crash.

    16. Psychoactive Drugs Ecstasy MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) stimulant and mild hallucinogen dangerous short term effects: Dehydration, overheating, high blood pressure and death. Dangerous long-term effects: Damage to serotonin-producing neurons leading to reduced serotonin and increased risk for depression. Interferes with circadian rhythms Disrupts immune system functioning

    17. Psychoactive Drugs Hallucinogens psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input LSD

    18. Psychoactive Drugs LSD lysergic acid diethylamide a powerful hallucinogenic drug also known as acid THC the major active ingredient in marijuana triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations Hard to classify marijuana. Smoking marijuana is not being pursued for medical reasons due to dangers of smoking but the Institute of Medicine recommends delivering THC with a medical inhaler for medical purposes. Marijuana does impair judgment, perceptual skills and rxn time. Marijuana does disrupt formation of memories and interfere with immediate recall of info. even after the period of smoking. There are THC sensitive receptors in the brains frontal lobes, limbic system, and motor cortex. THC and its byproducts stay in the body for more than a month.Hard to classify marijuana. Smoking marijuana is not being pursued for medical reasons due to dangers of smoking but the Institute of Medicine recommends delivering THC with a medical inhaler for medical purposes. Marijuana does impair judgment, perceptual skills and rxn time. Marijuana does disrupt formation of memories and interfere with immediate recall of info. even after the period of smoking. There are THC sensitive receptors in the brains frontal lobes, limbic system, and motor cortex. THC and its byproducts stay in the body for more than a month.

    19. Near-Death Experiences Near-Death Experience an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death often similar to drug-induced hallucinations Many hallucinatory experiences are similar to the near-death experiences reported by 1/3 of those who survive a brush with death. Is this brains reaction to stress? Many hallucinatory experiences are similar to the near-death experiences reported by 1/3 of those who survive a brush with death. Is this brains reaction to stress?

    20. Psychoactive Drugs

    21. Trends in Drug Use Book suggests that trends in drug use follow peoples attitudes about the perceived risks of using drugs.Book suggests that trends in drug use follow peoples attitudes about the perceived risks of using drugs.

    22. Perceived Marijuana Risk