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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY. Chapter 10 Thinking and Language. Thinking. Cognition mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Cognitive Psychologists study these mental activities concept formation problem solving decision making judgment formation.

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Myers psychology
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY

Chapter 10

Thinking and Language


Thinking
Thinking

  • Cognition

    • mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

  • Cognitive Psychologists

    • study these mental activities

      • concept formation

      • problem solving

      • decision making

      • judgment formation


Thinking1
Thinking

  • Concept

    • mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people

  • Prototype

    • mental image or best example of a category

      • matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)


Thinking2
Thinking

  • Algorithm

    • methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem

    • contrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics


Thinking3
Thinking

  • Heuristic

    • simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

    • usually speedier than algorithms

    • more error-prone than algorithms


Thinking4
Thinking

Unscramble

S P L O Y O C H Y G

  • Algorithm

    • all 907,208 combinations

  • Heuristic

    • throw out all YY combinations

    • other heuristics?


Thinking5
Thinking

  • Insight

    • sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem

    • contrasts with strategy-based solutions

  • Confirmation Bias

    • tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions

  • Fixation

    • inability to see a problem from a new perspective

    • impediment to problem solving


The matchstick problem
The Matchstick Problem

  • How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?


The three jugs problem
The Three-Jugs Problem

  • Using jugs A, B, and C, with the capacities shown, how would you measure out the volumes indicated?


The candle mounting problem
The Candle-Mounting Problem

  • Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?


Thinking6
Thinking

  • Mental Set

    • tendency to approach a problem in a particular way

    • especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem


Thinking7
Thinking

  • Functional Fixedness

    • tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions

    • impediment to problem solving


The matchstick problem1
The Matchstick Problem

  • Solution to the matchstick problem


The three jugs problem1
The Three-Jugs Problem

  • Solution: a) All seven problems can be solved by the equation shown in (a): B - A - 2C = desired volume.

  • b) But simpler solutions exist for problems 6 and 7, such as A - C for problem 6.


The candle mounting problem1
The Candle-Mounting Problem

  • Solving this problem requires recognizing that a box need not always serve as a container


Heuristics
Heuristics

  • Representativeness Heuristic

    • judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes

    • may lead one to ignore other relevant information


Heuristics1
Heuristics

  • Availability Heuristic

    • estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

    • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

    • Example: airplane crash


Thinking8
Thinking

  • Overconfidence

    • tendency to be more confident than correct

    • tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments


Thinking9
Thinking

  • Framing

    • the way an issue is posed

    • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments

    • Example: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean?


Thinking10
Thinking

  • Belief Bias

    • the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning

    • sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid

  • Belief Perseverance

    • clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited


Artificial intelligence
Artificial Intelligence

  • Artificial Intelligence

    • designing and programming computer systems

      • to do intelligent things

      • to simulate human thought processes

        • intuitive reasoning

        • learning

        • understanding language


Artificial intelligence1
Artificial Intelligence

  • Computer Neural Networks

    • computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells

    • performing tasks

      • learning to recognize visual patterns

      • learning to recognize smells


Language
Language

  • Language

    • our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning

  • Phoneme

    • in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit


Language1
Language

  • Morpheme

    • in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning

    • may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)

  • Grammar

    • a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others


Language2
Language

  • Semantics

    • the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language

    • also, the study of meaning

  • Syntax

    • the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language


Language3

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentage able

to discriminate

Hindi t’s

Hindi-

speaking

adults

6-8

months

8-10

months

10-12

months

English-

speaking

adults

Infants from English-speaking homes

Language

  • We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages


Language4
Language

  • Babbling Stage

    • beginning at 3 to 4 months

    • the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language

  • One-Word Stage

    • from about age 1 to 2

    • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words


Language5
Language

  • Two-Word Stage

    • beginning about age 2

    • the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements

  • Telegraphic Speech

    • early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words


Language6

Summary of Language Development

Month

(approximate)

Stage

Babbles many speech sounds.

4

Babbling reveals households

language.

10

12

One-word stage.

24

Two-world, telegraphic speech.

24+

Language develops rapidly into

complete sentences.

Language


Language7
Language

  • Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain


Language8

Percentage

correct on

grammar

test

100

90

80

70

60

50

Native

3-7

8-10

11-15

17-39

Age at school

Language

  • New language learning gets harder with age


Language9
Language

  • Linguistic Determinism

    • Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think


Language10
Language

  • The interplay of thought and language


Animal thinking and language

Direction of

nectar source

Animal Thinking and Language

  • The straight-line part of the dance points in the direction of a nectar source, relative to the sun


Animal thinking and language1
Animal Thinking and Language

  • Gestured Communication


Animal thinking and language2
Animal Thinking and Language

  • Is this really language?