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Artificial Gravity. Central Force. There is no normal or tension force affecting things in orbit. Like falling bodies that accelerate, a satellite accelerates toward the earth. Gravity is a central force. orbital velocity. centripetal acceleration. Satellite. Earth. Force on Mass.

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Presentation Transcript
central force
Central Force
  • There is no normal or tension force affecting things in orbit.
  • Like falling bodies that accelerate, a satellite accelerates toward the earth.
  • Gravity is a central force.

orbital velocity

centripetal acceleration

Satellite

Earth

force on mass
Force on Mass
  • Newton’s law of acceleration applies to orbits.
    • Centripetal acceleration times mass is the force of gravity
  • The situation is the same for the satellite or any object in the satellite.

Satellite or astronaut

F

a

Earth

free fall
The net force of an object in circular orbit matches the centripetal acceleration.

This is the same for a freely falling object.

Velocity does not change the force or acceleration.

Free Fall

v

Fnet

a

a = g

Fnet = mg

v

Earth

weightlessness
Weightlessness
  • Objects in free fall exert no normal force.
    • Fnet = -ma = -mg + FN
    • If a = g, FN = 0
  • The same is true in orbit.
    • Fnet = mar = Fgrav + FN
    • If ar = Fgrav/m, FN = 0
  • Objects in orbit are weightless.
spin the station
Spin the Station
  • A spinning station in orbit has a centripetal acceleration of its own.
    • Acceleration is on the inside pointing inward.
  • There is a corresponding centripetal force for object on the inside wall.

Satellite

a

F

station gravity
Station Gravity
  • The centripetal force is like an elevator accelerating upward.
    • Fnet = mar = FN
  • The net force must be due to a normal force.
    • Experience as weight
    • If rw2 = g then it matches earth’s gravity.

Satellite

a

F

centrifuge
Centrifuge
  • A centrifuge spins to create an artificial gravity.
    • Liquid separation
    • Pilot training
    • Amusement rides
gravitron
Gravitron
  • The Gravitron is an amusement ride that uses centripetal force.
    • Rotates at 24 rpm
    • Diameter is 14 m
centripetal correction
Centripetal Correction
  • The spin of the earth creates a centripetal acceleration toward the axis of the earth.
  • The effect is like accelerating down in an elevator.
  • Items weigh less at the equator.

a = w2r