Artificial Gravity

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Artificial Gravity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Artificial Gravity. Central Force. There is no normal or tension force affecting things in orbit. Like falling bodies that accelerate, a satellite accelerates toward the earth. Gravity is a central force. orbital velocity. centripetal acceleration. Satellite. Earth. Force on Mass.

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Presentation Transcript

Artificial Gravity

Central Force
• There is no normal or tension force affecting things in orbit.
• Like falling bodies that accelerate, a satellite accelerates toward the earth.
• Gravity is a central force.

orbital velocity

centripetal acceleration

Satellite

Earth

Force on Mass
• Newton’s law of acceleration applies to orbits.
• Centripetal acceleration times mass is the force of gravity
• The situation is the same for the satellite or any object in the satellite.

Satellite or astronaut

F

a

Earth

The net force of an object in circular orbit matches the centripetal acceleration.

This is the same for a freely falling object.

Velocity does not change the force or acceleration.

Free Fall

v

Fnet

a

a = g

Fnet = mg

v

Earth

Weightlessness
• Objects in free fall exert no normal force.
• Fnet = -ma = -mg + FN
• If a = g, FN = 0
• The same is true in orbit.
• Fnet = mar = Fgrav + FN
• If ar = Fgrav/m, FN = 0
• Objects in orbit are weightless.
Spin the Station
• A spinning station in orbit has a centripetal acceleration of its own.
• Acceleration is on the inside pointing inward.
• There is a corresponding centripetal force for object on the inside wall.

Satellite

a

F

Station Gravity
• The centripetal force is like an elevator accelerating upward.
• Fnet = mar = FN
• The net force must be due to a normal force.
• Experience as weight
• If rw2 = g then it matches earth’s gravity.

Satellite

a

F

Centrifuge
• A centrifuge spins to create an artificial gravity.
• Liquid separation
• Pilot training
• Amusement rides
Gravitron
• The Gravitron is an amusement ride that uses centripetal force.
• Rotates at 24 rpm
• Diameter is 14 m
Centripetal Correction
• The spin of the earth creates a centripetal acceleration toward the axis of the earth.
• The effect is like accelerating down in an elevator.
• Items weigh less at the equator.

a = w2r