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Ancient Roman Civilization: Architecture and Engineering. City of Rome. Architecture and Engineering. What type of innovations came from the Ancient Roman Civilization? What influences can we see in our society today? Can you give two examples?. Roman Cities.
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By the time of Augustus, Rome had grown from a tiny settlement on the Tiber River to a metropolis at the center of an expanding empire. Under the republic Rome became the political capital of the Mediterranean and a symbol of Roman power and wealth.
Why do you think a system of roads was important to the survival of the Empire?
An expanding network of roads helped to link Rome's distant territories. One of the most important paved military roads was the Appian Way, commissioned by the Roman official Appius Claudius Caecus. It became the major route from Rome to Greece. Although these large lava blocks may not be the original material, the route itself has remained unchanged and in use since it was first paved more than 2200 years ago.
When archaeologists began excavating the city of Pompeii, which had been covered with ash and mud by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in ad 79, they found the remains of people, ancient buildings, and other artifacts preserved amid the volcanic debris. Among the structures uncovered was The Forum of Pompeii, pictured, a group of temples, courts, and palaces that served as the city’s legislative center.
This Roman basilica was begun by the emperor Maxentius between 307 and 310 and completed by Constantine the Great after 312. Although it was one of the most important monuments in classical antiquity, almost all that remains of the building are these three huge, barrel-vaulted bays
By the 1st century b.c, the extensive conquests of the Romans led them to regard the Mediterranean as mare nostrum (our sea). Roman influence went far beyond politics. Roman art, architecture, and language were among the cultural traits that slowly took hold in many of Rome's conquered territories. Ruins of ancient temples in Baalbek, Lebanon, include the Temple of Jupiter, built by the Romans after they took control of the territory that included what is now Lebanon in 64 b.c.
The Pantheon in Rome is one of the most famous buildings in the world. It was commissioned by Hadrian in 118 and completed in 128. At one time it had a colonnaded court leading to the portico. The dome of the rotunda behind the portico is 43.2 m (142 ft) in diameter. The oculus (a round opening) at the top is 8.5 m (28 ft) in diameter and provides the only source of light for the interior.
Roman engineers completed the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, in ad 128. Its interior was conceived as a single immense space illuminated by a single round opening, called an oculus, at the highest point in the dome. The interior is decorated with colored marble, and lined with pairs of columns and carved figures set into niches in the wall.
The Roman emperor Augustus founded the city of Aosta during the 1st century b.c near the junction of natural transportation routes from Italy through the mountains to France and Switzerland. The city has many remnants of Roman architecture, including wall segments from this theater.
The Colosseum in Rome (70-82) is best known for its multilevel system of vaults made of concrete. It is called the Colosseum for a colossal statue of Nero that once stood nearby, but its real name is the Flavian Amphitheater. It was used for staged battles between lions and Christians, among other spectacles, and is one of the most famous pieces of architecture in the world.
The Roman aqueduct at Pont du Gard near Nîmes, France, was built between the late 1st century bc and the early 1st century ad. The Romans built extensive systems of aqueducts to carry water to their residential areas from distant sources.
Builders laid the cornerstone for the United States Capitol in 1793, and the building has been the seat of the country’s Senate and the House of Representatives since 1800. The Rotunda stands 66 m (180 ft) high and is the symbolic center of both Capitol Hill and Washington, D.C.