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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong. Postwar History. Republic of China 1912 -. First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925). Chiang Kai-shek. First constitutional president 1948 - 1975 Defeated by CCP in 1949 Retreated to Taiwan

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taiwan roc hong kong

Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

Postwar History

republic of china 1912
Republic of China 1912 -
  • First republic in Asia
  • First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)
chiang kai shek
Chiang Kai-shek
  • First constitutional president
    • 1948 - 1975
  • Defeated by CCP in 1949
  • Retreated to Taiwan
  • Authoritarian rule for a quarter century
roc government
ROC Government
  • President (4-year term after 1996)
  • The Five ``Yuan”:
    • Executive Yuan
    • Legislative Yuan
    • Judicial Yuan
    • Examination Yuan
    • Control Yuan
  • Provinces
taiwan before 1949
Taiwan before 1949
  • Immigration from mainland China for centuries (Fujian and Hakka)
  • 1885, promoted from prefecture to province
  • 1895, ceded to Japan
  • 1945, returned to Republic of China
  • ``Taiwanese” versus ``mainlanders”
taiwan islands
Taiwan & Islands
  • Area: 13,900 square miles
  • Population: 22.7 million
  • Fujian 70%
  • Hakka 15%
  • “mainlanders”
    • 13%
comparison
Comparison
  • area
    • mainland: 9,600,000 km2
    • Taiwan: 36,000 km2
  • population
    • mainland: 1.3 billion
    • Taiwan: 22.7 million
comparison8
Comparison
  • nominal GDP of 2002
    • mainland: 1,237 billion US$
    • Taiwan: 286 billion US$
  • trade volume of 2002
    • mainland: 621 billion US$
    • Taiwan: 243 billion US$
time lagged development
Time-lagged development
  • Land reform in Taiwan (1950s) and in mainland (1970s)
  • economic takeoff in Taiwan (1950s- ) and in mainland (1980s- )
  • export promotion policies
    • tariff rebates (1950s vs. 1980s)
    • special economic zones (1960s vs. 1980s)
time lagged development10
Time-lagged development
  • Promotion of small and medium size enterprises in Taiwan (1960s- ) and in mainland (1980s- )
  • currency exchange rate
    • 1960s vs. 1990s
  • Popular elections at the basic level
chiang s one china policy
Chiang’s One-China Policy
  • ``Mainland was temporarily usurped by communist bandits”
  • ``Gloriously retake the mainland”
  • Refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognized PRC
  • ROC was a permanent member of UN Security Council until 1971
lee teng hui 1923
Lee Teng-hui (1923 - )
  • Succeeded Chiang Kai-shek’s son as president of ROC and chairman of GMD in 1988
  • Became the first popularly elected president of ROC in 1996
  • Helped Democratic Progressive Party gain power in 2000
chen shui bian 1950
Chen Shui-bian (1950 - )
  • Leader of the Democratic Progressive Party
  • Inauguration in 2000
land people
Land & People
  • 422 square miles
    • Hong Kong Island
    • Kowloon Peninsular
    • New Territories
    • Outlying islands
  • 7 million residents
    • 95% Chinese
brief history
Brief History
  • HK Island was occupied by UK in 1841
  • New Territories on 99-year lease in 1898
  • Occupied by Japan during World War II
  • Shanghai enterprises fled CCP forces in late 1940s (industrialization of HK)
  • One of the four ``Asian Little Tigers”
handover to prc
Handover to PRC
  • Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems”
  • PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R.
  • PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984
  • 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990
  • Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997
1 country 2 systems
``1 Country, 2 Systems”
  • Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5)
  • HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)
  • PRC Central Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs (B.L. A13-14)