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The University of Hong Kong MSc (CPM)/(RE) 2009/2010. Construction Safety Management (RECO6040) Introduction of Safety Management System By Professor Steve Rowlinson/Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam Date: 12th January 2010 Time: 18:30 hours – 21:30 hours

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The university of hong kong msc cpm re 2009 2010
The University of Hong Kong MSc (CPM)/(RE) 2009/2010

Construction Safety Management (RECO6040)

Introduction of

Safety Management System

By

Professor Steve Rowlinson/Dr. Raglan H. C. Lam

Date: 12th January 2010

Time: 18:30 hours – 21:30 hours

Venue: The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong





Case study
Case Study

What is the possible cause of the problem?




Development of safety management system
Development of Safety Management System

Hong Kong Industrial Safety Review in 1995

- to achieve high standards of safety and health at work.

Pointed out - “the tradition of industrial safety culture in Hong Kong has been weak”

Suggested - encouraging self-regulation through a safety management system.


Construction safety legislation
Construction Safety Legislation

Safety Legislation Based on the UK Practice:

  • Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Safety Management) Regulation

    It imposes obligations on the duty holders to implement an appropriate safety management system for improving the safety performance of the workplace. It also prescribes the requirements to conduct safety audits or reviews periodically.


Development of safety management system1
Development of Safety Management System

The general duties of employers were laid out in the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) in the United Kingdom and were further enforced by the requirements of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992. This Regulation, which came into operation in 1993, required proprietors to set up a safety management system in their workplaces.


Development of safety management system2
Development of Safety Management System

In U.K. from Enforcement Approach (Before 1974 Establish Regulation to Focus on Specific Operation) Trend to Self-regulation Approach (General Duties in 1974 & Safety Management System in 1992).

In H.K. from Enforcement Approach (Before 1989 Establish Regulation to Focus on Specific Operation) Trend to Self-regulation Approach (General Duties in 1989 & Safety Management System in 1999)


Development of safety management system3
Development of Safety Management System

Self-regulation is defined as “the active involvement of the employers and employees, with minimum government intervention, to look after the safety and health matters in their own workplaces by implementing a safety management system in order to identify hazards, to work out preventive measures and to implement controls”.

Dawson, Poynter & Stevens (1983)


Development of safety management system4
Development of Safety Management System

Pees, J. (1988) divided self-regulation into three categories -- total self-regulation (or voluntary self-regulation), mandated full self-regulation and mandated partial self-regulation.


Development of safety management system5
Development of Safety Management System

Total self-regulation involves the establishment of codes of practice and enforcement techniques within industries or professions which are quite independent from the government.


Development of safety management system6
Development of Safety Management System

In mandated full self-regulation, the government requires industries to establish a regulatory system with details of the regulations and the methods of enforcement determined by the industries.


Development of safety management system7
Development of Safety Management System

In mandated partial self-regulation, industries are required to specify at least some of the rules and / or to carry out some of the enforcement actions.


Development of safety management system8
Development of Safety Management System

Introducing the Safety Management Regulations in Hong Kong, is pushing forward a move from mandated partial self-regulation to mandated full self-regulation.


Development of safety management system9
Development of Safety Management System

The legislation aims to foster self-regulation and enhance co-operation between employers and employees. Proprietors of specific industrial undertakings and construction contractors of construction sites are required to implement safety management systems and conduct safety audits or safety reviews. This idea has come into operation with the introduction of the Factories and Industrial Undertaking (Safety Management) Regulation in April 2002.


Safety management system
Safety Management System

A systematic approach is need to address three key questions:

  • Where are we now?

  • Where do we want to be?

  • How do we get there?


F iu safety management regulation
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

  • Enacted on 24th November 1999

  • Implement on 1st April 2002 (Part I & Part II)

  • 10 Elements Only

  • Part III (Other 4 Elements) Review afterward


Safety management
Safety Management

What is “Safety”

  • Safety is described as a control of loss

    What is “Management System”

  • The classical approach:

    • plan

    • organise

    • lead

    • control

  • “Getting things done through others”


Safety management1
Safety Management

Safety Management System

means a system to provides safety management in an industrial undertaking

Safety Management

Planning, developing, organising & implementation of a safety policy

Measuring, auditing or reviewing of the performance


F iu safety management regulation1
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

  • Proprietors & Contractors of Construction Site Required to have SMS

    • 50 workers to 99 workers - Implement 8 elements & Conduct Safety Review every 6 months by Safety Review Officer

    • 100 workers or more - Implement 14 (10 only Today) elements & Conduct Safety Audit every 6 months by Registered Safety Auditor


F iu safety management regulation2
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

  • Proprietors & Contractors of Shipyard, Factory & Designated Undertaking Required to have SMS

    • 50 workers to 99 workers - Implement 8 elements & Conduct Safety Review every 12 months by Safety Review Officer

    • 100 workers or more - Implement 14 (10 only Today) elements & Conduct Safety Audit every 12 months by Registered Safety Auditor


Safety management system1
Safety Management System

Elements of Safety Management System - 14 Elements:

Part 1

1. Safety Policy

2. Safety Organisation

3. Safety Training

4. In-house Safety Rules

5. Safety Inspection Programme

6. Personal Protective Equipment Programme

7. Accident & Incident Investigation

8. Emergency Preparedness


Safety management system2
Safety Management System

Elements of Safety Management System - 14 Elements:

Part 2

9. Evaluation, Selection and Control of Sub-contractors

10. Safety Committees

Part 3

11. Evaluation of Job Related Hazards

12. Safety Promotion

13. Process Control Programme

14. Occupational Health Programme


Duties of proprietor contractor
Duties of Proprietor & Contractor

Safety Audit & Safety Review Report

  • Proprietor or Contractor should read and countersign the report with date

  • Draw up a Action Plan within 14 days

  • Submit to Commissioner within 21 days

  • Keep copy of report at least 5 years


F iu safety management regulation3
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

Registered Safety Auditor - means a person registered as a safety auditor to conduct safety audit

Safety Review Officer - means a person who appointed to conduct safety review


F iu safety management regulation4
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

Duty of Registered Safety Auditor:

  • Submit audit report within 28 days to Proprietor or Contractor

  • Keep copy of report at least 5 years

  • Submit copy of report to Commissioner within 21 days upon written request

  • Give audit plan to the Commissioner not less than 14 days before the audit


F iu safety management regulation5
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

Duty of Safety Review Officer:

  • Submit safety review report within 28 days to Proprietor or Contractor

  • Keep copy of report at least 3 years

  • Submit copy of report to Commissioner within 21 days upon written request


Registration information of registered safety auditor
Registration Information of Registered Safety Auditor

Registration Information

  • Up to end of December 2008, Over 1,500 persons have been registered as Registered Safety Auditor by Labour Department.


F iu safety management regulation6
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

How to be Registered Safety Auditor?

  • RSO under F&IU (SO & SS) Reg.

  • 3 years Managerial Post within 5 years

  • Recognised/Registered Course by L.D. e.g. PolyU, CityU, CITA, NOSA, DNV. And etc.

  • Understand Hong Kong Safety Legislation


F iu safety management regulation7
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

How to be Safety Review Officer?

  • Theoretical and Practical Training to ensure a person competency for conducting safety review efficiently & effectively.



F iu safety management regulation8
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

  • Penalty

    • Proprietor or Contractor fails his duties - HK$200,000 & Imprisonment for 6 months

    • Registered Safety Auditor fails his duties - HK$100,000 & Imprisonment for 3 months

    • Safety Review Officer fails his duties - HK$100,000 & Imprisonment for 3 months

    • Scheme Operator fails his duties - HK$50,000

    • Any person obstructs for assessing - HK$50,000



Safety management models
Safety Management Models

BS8800 – 5 Key Management Principles:

  • Policy

  • Organisation

  • Planning & Implementing

  • Measuring Performance

  • Audit & Reviewing Performance



Safety management models1
Safety Management Models

BS EN ISO 14001-International Organisation for Standardization:

  • Initial Status Review

  • Occupational Health & Safety Policy

  • Planning

  • Implementation and Operation

  • Checking & Corrective Action

  • Management Review

  • Continual Improvement



Safety management models2
Safety Management Models

Continuous Improvement Model-NSC 1994:

  • Management Commitment and Involvement

  • Establish a Baseline

  • Set Goals

  • Implement Strategies

  • Review and Adjust



As nzs4804 1997
AS/NZS4804-1997

  • Commitment

  • Policy

  • Planning

  • Implementation

  • Measurement and evaluation

  • Management review and improvement



Labour department safety management model
Labour Department Safety Management Model

  • Planning

  • Developing

  • Organising

  • Implementing

  • Measuring

  • Auditing / Reviewing



5 principles vs 14 elements
5 Principles Vs 14 Elements

“A Guide to Safety Management”, it lists the essential principles of a safety management system, and it is not statutory requirements.

The 14 elements listed in the Factories and Industrial Undertaking (Safety Management) Regulation are statutory requirements.


Safety management models3
Safety Management Models

Useful Site Address:

http://www/ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/managmnt/ioha/index.htm#top


Case study1
Case Study

What is the Similarities and Difference of Safety Management Systems?





What is the safety plan
What is the Safety Plan?

Development Bureau (previously named Works Bureau, then Environment, Transport and Works Bureau)defined a “Safety Plan” to mean the plan submitted by the Contractor to the Architect or Engineer in accordance with the Special Condition of Contract which includes the policies and detailed procedures and requirements which, when implemented, will achieve compliance with the Contractor’s safety and health obligations and responsibilities under the Contract.


Requirements in safety plan
Requirements in Safety Plan?

  • The Contractor’s Safety Plan shall describe in detail:

  • What the works entail?

  • How the Contractor will undertake the operations?

  • What measures the Contractor will take to prevent exposure to any health or safety risk?

  • What is required to ensure safe working conditions (safety procedures)?

  • How those safe conditions will be achieved (method statements)?


Requirements in safety plan1
Requirements in Safety Plan?

  • Risk assessment will form the basis of all monitoring activities undertaken by the Architect/Engineer.

  • Safety Plan should include 14 elements of Safety Management System


Contractual requirement of safety plan
Contractual Requirement of Safety Plan?

Principal contractors often have a general Safety and Health Plan on hand for various projects.

After the preparation and submission of the Plan, there is insufficient follow up action to monitor the implementation of the plan because of a shortage of human resources and a lack of safety awareness.


What should be included in safety plan
What should be included in Safety Plan?

A Safety Plan should be developed to be a part of the tender documentation and it :

  • includes risk assessments prepared by the contractors

  • incorporates the approach to be adopted for managing health and safety by everyone involved in the construction phase

  • incorporates common but necessary arrangements (including emergency procedures and welfare facilities)


What should be included in safety plan1
What should be included in Safety Plan?

  • includes arrangements for fulfilling the principal contractor’s duties

  • includes arrangements for monitoring compliance with health and safety laws

  • includes, where appropriate, rules for the management of the work for health and safety which can be modified as work proceeds according to the experience and information received from the contractors


The university of hong kong msc cpm

Safety Management System

Peterson, D., 1978, Techniques of Safety Management“ Accidents, Unsafe Acts, Unsafe Conditions: are all symptoms that something is wrong with the SMS.”


Main elements of safety management
Main Elements of Safety Management

Safety Policy - Contractor’s commitment to safety and health at work

Safety Organization - Contractor’s structure to assure implementation of the commitment to safety and health at work

Safety Training - Training to Contractor’s personnel with knowledge to work safely and without risk to health


Main elements of safety management1
Main Elements of Safety Management

In House Safety Rules - Contractor’s instruction & arrangements for achieving safety management objectives

Safety Inspection Programme - Contractor’s workplace inspection programme to identify hazardous conditions and for the rectification of any such conditions at regular intervals


Main elements of safety management2
Main Elements of Safety Management

Personal Protective Equipment Programme - Contractor’s programme to identify hazardous exposure or the risk of such exposure to the workers and to ensure the use of suitable personal protective equipment as a last resort when engineering control methods are not feasible


Main elements of safety management3
Main Elements of Safety Management

Accident & Incident Investigation - Investigation of accidents or incidents to find out the cause of any accident or incident and to develop prompt arrangements to prevent recurrence

Emergency Preparedness - Contractor’s preparedness in development, communication and execution against emergency situations


Main elements of safety management4
Main Elements of Safety Management

Evaluation, Selection and Control of Subcontractor - Contractor’s management system to evaluate, select and control subcontractors for the safety awareness and obligations

Safety Committees - Discussion, communication and feedback of safety and health matters


Main elements of safety management5
Main Elements of Safety Management

Evaluation of Job Related Hazards - Identification, evaluation and control of related hazards or potential hazards by Contractor

Safety promotion - Contractor’s programme to develop, promote and maintain safety and health awareness in workplace


Main elements of safety management6
Main Elements of Safety Management

Process Control Programme - Contractor’s programme for protecting workers from hazards and accident

Occupational Health Programme - Contractor’s programme to protect workers from occupational health hazards



What is the policy
What is the policy?

A safety Policy is the Commitment of the Proprietor or Contractor to Safety at Work


What should be included in the policy
What should be included in the policy?

Top Management Commitment:

  • Provide a Safe Working Environment

  • Achieve Higher Standard

  • Set Safety Target

  • Comply with Relevant Safety Requirements


What should be included in the policy1
What should be included in the policy?

Top Management Commitment:

  • Key Responsibilities

  • Arrangement for Communication

  • Inspect by Occupational Safety Officer

  • How the Policy will be Reviewed and Updated


Safety organisation
Safety Organisation

An Organisation Chart Showing the

Name & Position with Clear Authority & Communication Lines for Safety Performance Management

Safety Organisation Chart includes Team Members in Different Sections and Safety Section and Current Subcontractors’ Safety Representatives


Safety organisation1
Safety Organisation

A Director Accountable for Leading Safety & Health in an Organisation

Appoint Director or Senior Person for Overall Coordination & Implemention of the Safety Policy

Written Down an Individual Responsibility such as Director, Project Manager, Site Agent, Safety Personnel, Engineer, Foreman and etc. in the Safety Plan

Also Clearly Defined the Responsibility of Subcontractor in Safety Plan & Subcontract


Safety organisation2
Safety Organisation

Sufficient & Competent Safety Officers, Safety Advisors, Safety Supervisors & Safety Representatives Appointed and Engaged in an Organisation

Arrangement to Assign Competent Person to Keep Up-to-date Safety Information such as Notice Board, Safety Handbook & etc.


Safety training
Safety Training

The five elements of training:

  • decide if training is necessary;

  • identify training needs;

  • identify training objectives and methods;

  • deliver training;

  • evaluate effectiveness.


Safety training1
Safety Training

  • Training Plan Includes the Information of Type of Training, Training Syllabus, Targeted Attendees, Trainer, Tentative Date & Training Venue

  • Green Card Training in May 2001

  • Attend Safety Induction Training


Safety training2
Safety Training

  • Safety Management Training

  • Supervisory Training

  • Specific Training for High Risk

  • Safety Working Cycle Training

  • Training Summary


In house safety rules
In-house Safety Rules

  • Survey Identify Safety Working Procedure

  • Safety Working Rule Specify in Safety

    Plan

  • General & Specific Safety Rules Displayed in the Workplace

  • Disciplinary Action to Comply Rule

  • Regular Review Safety Rules


Safety inspection programme
Safety Inspection Programme

  • Prepare Inspection Checklist

  • Senior Management Inspection, Weekly Safety Walk, Pre Site Safety Committee Inspection, SO & SS Regular Inspection

  • Follow-up Action Taken

  • Inspection Statistics & Discuss in SSC

  • Regular Internal Safety Audit


Personal protective equipment programme
Personal Protective Equipment Programme

  • Arrangement for Selection & Procurement of PPE

  • Sufficient Stock of PPE

  • Issuing & Replacement of PPE to workers


Personal protective equipment programme1
Personal Protective Equipment Programme

  • Training & Instruction for Proper Use of PPE

  • Provision of Store Area for PPE

  • Monitor Subcontractor’s PPE Brought into Site



What is accident incident dangerous occurrence near miss
What is Accident/IncidentDangerous Occurrence/Near Miss?

  • Accident - Personal Injured

  • Incident - Property Damaged

  • Dangerous Occurrence - Collapse of Crane, Fire and etc.

  • Near Miss - No Human Injure & Property Damage


Accident incident investigation1
Accident & incident Investigation

  • Accident Investigation & Reporting Procedures in Safety Plan

  • Conduct Accident Investigation Report to Prevent Recurrence of Accident

  • Set up Accident Investigation Panel

  • Conduct Accident Analysis


Examples of poor applications of system safety
Examples of Poor Applications of System Safety

  • Pipe Alpha (UK) 1974 - offshore oil platform fire (PTW system failure)

    • 167 fatalities

  • King’s Cross underground railway station fire (London) 1987 - fire broken out

    • 31 fatalities


Examples of poor applications of system safety1
Examples of Poor Applications of System Safety

Fatalities Case in Passenger Hoist

  • 12 fatalities in North Point 1993


Emergency preparedness
Emergency Preparedness

  • Establish the Emergency Programme

  • Set up Emergency Team – Appoint Emergency Coordinator & Deputy

  • Display Emergency Contact Telephone List


Emergency preparedness1
Emergency Preparedness

  • Emergency Drills conduct Every Six Months Interval & Prepare Report

  • Demonstration of use of Fire Extinguishers

  • Appointment of Sufficient First Aiders


Evaluation selection control of subcontractor
Evaluation, Selection & Control of Subcontractor

Evaluation, Selection & Control Subcontractor:

  • Pre-award & Pre-work Meeting

  • Evaluation of Subcontractor

  • Selection of Subcontractor


Evaluation selection control of subcontractor1
Evaluation, Selection & Control of Subcontractor

Evaluation, Selection & Control Subcontractor:

  • Assessment of Subcontractor

  • Penalty/Award of Subcontractor

  • Control Subcontractor Through Inspection


Safety committees
Safety Committees

Safety Committees

  • Company Safety Management Committee

  • Safety Policy Review Meeting


Safety committees1
Safety Committees

Safety Committees

  • Site Safety Management Committee

  • Site Safety Committee

  • Ensure Two-way Communication

  • Minutes Record all Information


Evaluation of job related hazards
Evaluation of Job Related Hazards

Method Statement versus Risk Assessment

  • Survey of all Anticipated Activities

  • Conduct Risk Assessment

  • Conduct Method Statement

    Think?


Simple risk assessment
SIMPLE RISK ASSESSMENT

L

PROBABILITY

H

L

H

SEVERITY


Safety promotion
Safety Promotion

Safety Promotion

  • Publish Safety Bulletin

  • Erect Notice Board

  • Post Safety Sign & Poster

  • Select Site Safety Model Worker

  • Award Best Subcontractor

  • Erect Accident Statistics Board


Process control programme
Process Control Programme

Process Control Programme

  • Programme for Accident Control & Elimination of Hazards in order to Protect Workers


Occupational health programme
Occupational Health Programme

Occupational Health Programme

  • Hazards Substance Surveys

  • Identify Hazard Substances from Subcontractors


Occupational health programme1
Occupational Health Programme

Occupational Health Programme

  • Conduct Health Risk Assessment

  • Collect Material Safety Data Sheet

  • Conduct Noise Survey

  • Provide Welfare Facilities such as Washing & Toilet



Independent safety audit tool
Independent Safety Audit Tool

  • An IndependentSafety Audit Tool is used to evaluate the Safety Management System


Introduction to safety auditing system
Introduction to Safety Auditing System

CLP Power and MTR practiced systematic audit as part of their respective safety management systems since early 90s, well before the related legislation was enacted.

Formalized audit systems have also been practiced by organizations under the contractual requirement of Housing Authority and Environment, Transport & Works Bureau (WB) before legal requirement was established.


Proprietary type safety auditing systems
Proprietary Type Safety Auditing Systems

Complete Health and Safety Evaluation for the Construction Industry (CHASE); NOSA 5-Star Health & Safety Management System (5-Star); Independent Safety Audit System (ISAS); International Safety Rating System (ISRS), Continual Improvement Safety Programme Recognition of System (CISPROS) and etc.


F iu safety management regulation9
F&IU (Safety Management) Regulation

Safety Audit means an arrangement:

  • collecting, assessing and verifying information on the efficiency, effectiveness and reliability of a SMS

  • Considering improvements to the system.


Contractual requirement
Contractual Requirement

Works Bureau Technical Circular No. 13/1996, Guidance Notes for the Administration of Approved Contractors for Public Works and Regulating Actions for Poor Performance, Works Bureau, Hong Kong.

Works Bureau Implements the Pay for Safety Scheme and Independent Safety Audit Scheme in mid 1996.


Contractual requirement1
Contractual Requirement

Works Bureau Technical Circular No. 32/1999, 1999, Second Stage of the Independent Safety Audit Scheme, Works Bureau, Hong Kong.

Works Bureau Technical Circular No. 2/2003, Guidance Notes for the Administration of Approved Contractors for Public Works and Regulating Actions for Poor Performance, Works Bureau, Hong Kong.


Contractual requirement2
Contractual Requirement

Works Bureau, 1998, List of Approved Contractors for Public Works, Contractor Management Information System, Works Bureau, Hong Kong.


Independent safety audit scheme
Independent Safety Audit Scheme

ISAS is chiefly divided into 2 parts: –The 1st part concerns a safety and health management system that is evaluated through Elements 1 to 13 (Safety Policy, Safety Organisation, Safety Training, In-house Safety Rules and Regulations, Safety Committee, Program for Inspection of Hazardous Conditions, Job Hazard Analysis, Personal Protection Program, Accident / Incident Investigation, Emergency Preparedness, Safety Promotion, Health assurance Program, and Evaluation, Selection & Control of Subcontractors);


Independent safety audit scheme1
Independent Safety Audit Scheme

The 2nd part concerns the implementation of the safety and health plan on site which is evaluated by Element 14 (Process Control Program).

Carried out by Accredited Safety Auditor under the Scheme


Safety audit
Safety Audit

Audit Process:

Preparation

  • Arrange meeting to discuss and agree the objective and scope of the audit with relevant managers and employee representatives.

  • Auditor collect and review documentation.

  • Prepare and agree on audit plan before 14 days.


Safety audit1
Safety Audit

Audit Process:

2 Days On-site

  • Conduct opening meeting to collect the latest information e.g. activities, plant & equipment, accident/incident and etc.

  • Interview people to obtain and understanding their view and the role they play.

  • Observe physical conditions and work activities.

  • Review and assess additional documents.

  • Undertake closing meeting to feedback the initial findings to relevant parties.


Safety audit2
Safety Audit

Audit Process:

Conclusion

  • Assemble and evaluate evidence.

  • Write audit report within 14 days.

  • Issue the audit report to relevant parties including client, consultant engineer and contractor


Safety audit3
Safety Audit

  • Management tools to identify the strengths & weaknesses of SMS

    • Independent Safety Audit - Government Contracts in every 3 months by Accredited Safety Auditor

    • F & IU Safety Audit - Government & Private Contracts over 1 billion or 100 Workers conduct 14 elements, less than 1 billion & 50-99 Workers conduct 8 elements


Safety audit4
Safety Audit

Safety Audit System in Government Contract

  • Independent Safety Audit Scheme (Works Bureau Safety Audit Scheme & Housing Authority Safety Audit Scheme)


Safety audit5
Safety Audit

  • According to the Works Branch Technical Circular No.32/99, if either of the aggregate scores in Part A and Part B is below 60%, the respective quarterly report on the contractors performance will be marked as “Adverse”, and the contractor will receive a warning letter from the Architect/Engineer urging for improvements to be made.


Safety audit6
Safety Audit

  • If contractors cannot meet the minimum standard, that is 60% for both parts (Part A – elements 1-13, and Part B – element 14) in two consecutive audits, they will also be suspended from tendering for all government projects. If the score is less than 70% in Part A or Part B, no payment will be obtained from the Pay For Safety Scheme


Case study2
Case Study

Discuss the Implementation of Safety Management System in Hong Kong


Methodology the triangulation approach qualitative vs quantitative data
Methodology: The Triangulation ApproachQualitative vs. Quantitative data

Questionnaire

Structured Interview

Case Study

Safety Audit

Analysis

Title: “An Investigation into the Implementation of Safety Management System by Hong Kong Construction Contractors”


The university of hong kong msc cpm

Element

Distribution of Score (%)

No

0–59

60–69

70–100

Total

Safety Policy

6

11

113

130

1

Safety Organisation

6

15

109

130

2

Safety Training

32

31

67

130

3

In-house Safety Rules and Regulations

6

17

107

130

4

Safety Committee

6

14

110

130

5

Programme for Inspection of Hazardous Conditions

11

13

106

130

6

Job Hazard Analysis

47

15

68

130

7

Personal Protection Programme

6

10

106

130

8

Accident/incident Investigation

20

15

95

130

9

Emergency Preparedness

11

23

96

130

10

Safety Promotion

7

11

112

130

11

Health Assurance Programme

24

40

66

130

12

Evaluation, Selection and Control of Subcontractor

7

16

107

130

13

Safety Audit Score - Elements 1 to 13 of the Safety Management System


The university of hong kong msc cpm

Sub-

element

Title

Distribution of Score (%)

0–59

60–69

70–100

N/A

Total

14.1.1

Fire Arrangements

7

12

111

0

130

14.1.3

Working at Height

34

22

64

0

130

14.1.4

Housekeeping

7

26

97

0

130

14.1.5

Protection Against Falling Objects

33

16

74

7

130

14.2.3

Flammable Liquids and Gases

8

28

93

1

130

14.2.5

Health and Safety in Offices

6

11

113

0

130

14.3.2

Excavations

13

29

63

25

130

14.3.3

Lifting Operations

11

19

99

1

130

14.3.4

Mechanical/Manual Materials Handling

21

47

62

0

130

14.3.7

Welding/Cutting Operations and Equipment

15

22

87

6

130

14.3.8

Site Traffic

7

24

99

0

130

14.3.9

Site Transport

10

24

91

5

130

14.5.2

Electricity

15

40

75

0

130

14.5.3

Portable Tools

8

16

106

0

130

14.5.4

Mechanical Plant and Equipment

32

14

79

5

130

14.5.8

Substances Hazardous to Health

34

28

67

1

130

Safety Audit Score - Process Control Programme in Element 14 of the safety management system


Presence of systematic failure in sms
Presence of Systematic Failure in SMS

Contractors, irrespective of large and small, were found to be poor in implementation of some elements in the SMS, it was shown that they were facing common difficulties in the implementation of the system and so there is a systematic failure present in the SMS in Hong Kong.


13 factors that affect the construction industry
13 Factors That Affect the Construction Industry

  • Small Establishments in Contracting Sector

  • Contracts Awarded by Competitive Bidding

  • Multi-Contractors

  • Subcontracting System

  • Tight Construction Schedule

  • Low Education Level of Workers

  • High Labour Turnover & Changeover


13 factors that affect the construction industry1
13 Factors That Affect the Construction Industry

  • Migrant or Illegal Labourers

  • Great Variety of Trades and Transient Nature of Sites

  • Exposure to Weather

  • Joint Venture Projects

  • Safety Management System

  • Government’s Role in Enforcement Approach


Why contractors do not perform as desirably as hoped
Why contractors do not perform as desirably as hoped?

Combination of the following factors:

  • The laws only attach legal responsibilities to employers, primarily Principal Contractors and not subcontractors in the construction context (Prior to 28/11/2003).

  • Other people (such as Client, Designers, and Architects) do not presently have legal duties and keep a distance from the problem in fear of being implicated.


Why contractors do not perform as desirably as hoped1
Why contractors do not perform as desirably as hoped?

Combination of the following factors (Cont.):

  • Employees are rarely, if ever, prosecuted for breaches of their own legal duties and are portrayed as victims of their employer’s “negligence”- the legal pressure was not on them to behave.

  • Advice and guidelines on construction safety are insufficient to assist contractors to comply with the law. Although contractors may know that they are not meeting the statutory requirements, they do not know how to make it correct.


Why contractors do not perform as desirably as hoped2
Why contractors do not perform as desirably as hoped?

Combination of the following factors (Cont.):

  • Most safety professional (Safety Manager Club, 1998) criticised that frequency of inspection, prosecution frequency, amount of penalty fines, terms of imprisonment and the enforcement approach would indirectly affect to the participation of each party in safety and health issues.



Small contractors poor performance
Small Contractors – Poor Performance Fine

There is a general presumption that small contractors are inferior in their implementation of safety management systems because they usually suffer from a lack of resources. This assumption is only partially true because among all the weak elements in the safety management system, some of them are universally suffered by all contractors irrespective of the grouping.


Difficulties encountered by small companies
Difficulties Encountered by Small Companies Fine

  • Lack of Resources

  • Lack of Safety Awareness and Insufficient Knowledge

  • Unclear Responsibility under Sub-contracting System

  • Lack of Management Support


Characteristics of worst performers
Characteristics of Worst Performers Fine

Poor-performing contractors were generally found to possess the followingcharacteristics:

  • Passive attitude towards safety issues

  • Lack of safety knowledge

  • Lack of management commitment

  • Low priority given to safety

  • Only willing to meet the minimum statutory/contractual requirements with no extra works were voluntarily done


Characteristics of best performers
Characteristics of Best Performers Fine

Good-performing contractors were generally found to possess the following characteristics:

  • Presence of supportive senior management staff

  • Presence of proactive frontline management staff

  • Safety management was regarded as part of project management


The university of hong kong msc cpm

Framework Showing the Success of Small Contractors Fine

Good Safety Performance

Management support

  • Project scale is small

  • Management work easier

Proactive front-line management

  • Pecuniary incentive:

  • - awful experience

  • suspension from tendering

  • - wish for bidding for government projects

More knowledgeable after attending safety training courses


Presence of systematic failure in sms1
Presence of Systematic Failure in SMS Fine

It has been statistically proven that 3 elements were not dependent on the grouping of contractors, namely Safety training, Job hazard analysis and Working at height; the contractors’ performance in these items was not related to the size of their companies.


Analysis
Analysis Fine

Systematic Failure of Safety Management Systems

  • Safety Training: Not all managers and supervisors have attended formal safety training courses

  • Job Hazard Analysis: Effort required from on-site safety personnel and front-line management in updating the ever-changing site environment and its associated hazards.

    3. Working at Height: A great financial outlay is required to set up and maintain these safety provisions


The university of hong kong msc cpm

Findings Fine

  • If management is committed to safety, all round safety performance improves.

  • Clients do not commonly insist on good safety performances from their contractors

  • The cost of maintaining the safety elements is often more expensive than the original set-up cost

  • Small contractors do not often have enough resources to engage in the investment


Goal setting and expectancy theory
Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Fine

Profits vs. Safety

(where Goal rejection is likely to occur)


Common theme of 3 elements
Common Theme of 3 Elements: Fine

  • Require the cooperation of workers

  • Require a lot of maintenance


The university of hong kong msc cpm

1. FinePhysio-logical

(Basic)

2. Safety

(Emotional & physical )

3. Social

(Group affinity)

4. Self-esteem

(Ego)

5. Self-realisation

(Fulfilment, maturity, wisdom)

Food

Drink

Sleep

Sex

Security

Protection from danger

Belonging to group(s)

Social activities

 Love 

Friendship

Self-respect

Status

Recognition

Growth

Personal development

Accomplishment

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Individual Needs


Continuing nature of the management effort
Continuing Nature of the Management Effort Fine

The “Site Safety Cycle” (SSC) scheme implemented by Works Bureau is a good example in explaining this. SSC, modelled on the basis of “Safety Working Cycle” in Japan, was introduced to the voluntary contractors of government projects by Works Bureau in September 2000 (Works Bureau Technical Circular No. 28/2000 - Trial Implementation of Site Safety Cycle).


Continuing nature of the management effort1
Continuing Nature of the Management Effort Fine

The activities of SSC are now modified to suit for local industry under the Pay for Safety Scheme and classified into three categories; they include Daily Cycle, Weekly Cycle and Monthly Cycle (Environmental, Transport and Works Bureau Technical Circular No. 30/2002 in July 2002 – Implementation of Site Safety Cycle and Provision of Welfare Facilities for Workers at Construction Sites).


Implementation of site safety cycle
Implementation of Site Safety Cycle Fine

Daily Cycle

  • Pre-work Exercise and Safety (PES) meeting;

  • Hazard Identification Activity (HIA) meeting;

  • Pre-work Safety Checks (PSC);

  • Safety inspection by Site Agent or his/her representative;

  • Guidance and supervision during work;

  • Safety co-ordination meeting;

  • Daily cleaning and tidying up of the Site;

  • Checking of the Site after each day’s work


Implementation of site safety cycle1
Implementation of Site Safety Cycle Fine

Weekly Cycle

  • Site Safety Walk by Site Agent and Safety Officer in company with Architect/Engineer’s Representative;

  • Weekly co-ordination meeting with Site Agent and the Architect/Engineer’s Representative;

  • Weekly overall cleaning and tidying up of the Site


Implementation of site safety cycle2
Implementation of Site Safety Cycle Fine

Monthly Cycle

  • Site Safety Management Committee meeting (including pre-meeting inspection); and

  • Site Safety Committee meeting.



Challenge to basis of hk construction industry
Challenge to Basis of HK Construction Industry Fine

  • HK method combines self regulation and legislation – does not work

  • 5 weakest areas in process control programme match 3 most common reasons for accidents

  • Audits taken from Public Works projects and “pay for safety” scheme. Even worse if paid by contractors

  • Safety budget often used for profits

  • Self regulation policed by Trade Union: weak in HK

  • Legislation – does not suit organic nature of construction industry


Development of safety management system10
Development of Safety Management System Fine

The legislation aims to foster self-regulation and enhance co-operation between employers and employees. Proprietors of specific industrial undertakings and construction contractors of construction sites are required to implement safety management systems and conduct safety audits or safety reviews. This idea has come into operation with the introduction of the Factories and Industrial Undertaking (Safety Management) Regulation in April 2002.


Development of safety management system11
Development of Safety Management System Fine

  • Legislation can only be written in vague terms (the performance-based terms) that attempts to cover virtually all situations, this then creates another problem, the problem of interpretation, for contractors and proprietors.

  • Create the problem for interpretation and discretion, and therefore, leads to loopholes in the legislation. Also, legislation is written in a format that is not so user-friendly to layman, and so contractors can use it as an excuse to escape from the legal liabilities.


Challenge to hong kong s safety management system
Challenge to Hong Kong’s Safety Management System Fine

Current approach relies on legislation and self-regulation

  • Appropriate or not ?


Challenge to hong kong s safety management system1
Challenge to Hong Kong’s Safety Management System Fine

Organic Organization Wilson (1989)

  • Legislative approach in accident prevention is more suited to mechanistic organizations than to organic types

  • Mechanistic organizations are designed to suit relatively stable environments whilst organic types are best suited to unstable ones.


Organisation theory
Organisation Theory Fine

Tom Burns

  • The construction project team could be described as an organic organisation. Organic organisations tend to have no firmly set procedures or rules of conduct laid down, greater scope in decision making roles and the use of discretion by the workforce, non-standardization of operations and are organisations which can react rapidly to changes in the environment.


Organisation theory1
Organisation Theory Fine

  • Mechanistic organisations, the opposite of organic organisations, do not need such devices as their procedures and rules are clearly set down and, when used in a stable environment function quite automatically.


Implementation of self regulation
Implementation of Self-regulation Fine

  • Legislative control is not suitable for organic organization like the construction industry.

  • Self-regulation does not work before the safety culture in Hong Kong has not yet been mature enough to handle the system.


5 key points for successful sms

Successful SMS Fine

Participation

&

Commitment

Partnering

Responsibilities

&

Accountability

Consultation

Resources

5 Key Points for Successful SMS


Conclusion
Conclusion Fine

Five keys for successful health and safety management:

  • Development of partnering amongst the government, developers, training authorities, contractors, safety professionals and workforce;

  • Participation and commitment;

  • Clear responsibilities and accountability;

  • Appropriate resources allocation to safety and health; and

  • Effectiveness and efficiency of consultation from employees and Labour Union.


Case study3
Case Study Fine

Comparison of Conducting Safety Audit between Private & Government Project?


Safety audit7
Safety Audit Fine

  • Management tools to identify the strengths & weaknesses of SMS

    • Independent Safety Audit - Government Contracts in every 3 months by Accredited Safety Auditor

    • F & IU Safety Audit - Government & Private Contracts over 1 billion or 100 Workers conduct 14 elements, less than 1 billion & 50-99 Workers conduct 8 elements


Effective safety management system

Safety Policy Fine

Safety Organisation

Safety Training

In-house Rules

Safety Committee

Safety Inspection

Job Hazard Analysis

Personal Protective Equipment

Accident/ Incident Investigation

Emergency Preparedness

Safety Promotion

Health Assurance Program

Evaluation, Selection & Control of Subcontractor

Process Control Program

Effective Safety Management System

The Steve & Raglan Model 2006 (Mah-jong Theory)

Failure one Domino can lead to failure of the whole system


Question3
Question Fine


Thank you
Thank You Fine