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Mission-Based Approach. Needed a context for sensors, power and propulsion to use for examining future capabilities Aid to answering question: where are the technology gaps?

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Mission-Based Approach

  • Needed a context for sensors, power and propulsion to use for examining future capabilities

    • Aid to answering question: where are the technology gaps?

  • Make use of previously developed conceptualized missions (SSMF workshop), developed by science community, to provide the context

    • Sampling of missions to generate discussion only

    • Warning: these missions are not designed to meet specifically derived scientific objectives

      • System engineering approach not used in defining these missions

      • Lack of specific information may make task seem unconstrained

    • Assumptions and inferences on sensors and power and propulsion attendees will be required

      • This is OK!!! Just document assumptions and inferences

      • Keep the discussion flowing!


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Mission Characteristics

  • Six Mission descriptions provided:

    • Hurricane Genesis, Evolution, and Landfall

    • Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements

    • Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment

    • Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle

    • Antarctic Explorer (Cyrosphere)

    • Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry

  • Potential platform class(es) to assign to a mission

    • Daughter ship UAV (launched from mother ship)

    • Small UAV (~20 lbs payload)

    • Medium UAV

    • Large UAV (~2000 lbs payload)

    • Very Long Endurance UAV (3 days +)

  • Assumptions across all missions

    • For sensor track: Platform is capable of performing the mission as described in the profile

    • OTH network centric communications

    • ‘File and fly’ access to airspace

    • ‘Plug and Play’ open architecture

    • Capable of 100% nominal autonomous sensor operation


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Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall

  • Science objective: Observation of hurricanes to improve predictions of hurricane paths and landfall.

  • Remote, high altitude measurements:

  • Tropospheric measurements:

  • Boundary Layer:

  • Precipitation

  • Clouds

  • Meteorological sounding

  • Electrical activity

  • Microphysics

  • Dust

  • 4-D thermodynamics

  • Winds

  • Sea surface temperature

  • Surface winds

  • Surface imaging

  • Turbulent flux

  • Surface state: wave spectra, sea spume, etc


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Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall

  • High altitude, Mother Ship UAV: Very Long Endurance Platform

  • Tropospheric UAV: Daughter Platform

  • Boundary layer UAV: Small Platform

  • Optical Imager: lightning

  • Meteorological sonde

  • Daughter ships

  • Radar: cloud and precipitation

  • GPS reflectance: surface wave spectra

  • Lidar: surface wave spectra

  • Sounder: water vapor and temperature

  • Radiometer: cloud and precipitation

  • Microphysics (typical of drop-sondes, thermodynamics)

  • Infrared pyrometer: SST

  • Winds

  • Optical imager: surface imaging

  • Meteorological sonde: in-situ

  • XRBT thermocline

  • Turbulence flux



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Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall

  • Key mission characteristics:

    • High Altitude, Long Endurance

      • Remote mother platform: 65K ft / 2-3 weeks

    • Daughter ships => deploy/retrieve

    • Formation (coordinated) flight

    • Multi-ship operation

    • Quick turn-around

    • Re-tasking mission during flight

      • Satellite data

      • Remote, mother platform observations

      • Scientist

    • Payload directed flight

    • Terrain avoidance

      • boundary layer platform


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Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements

  • Science objective: study transformations of aerosols and gases in following cloud systems

    • Convective systems

    • Sea breeze cloud formation

    • Marine stratiform

    • Contrails in the Central U.S. in air traffic regions

    • Synoptic scale systems & Fronts

    • Cirrus outflow

  • Measurement

  • Water vapor, total water, water isotopes

  • Temperature

  • Pressure

  • Winds

  • Ozone

  • Lightning

  • Aerosols and cloud particles

  • Source gases and tracers

  • IR radiance

  • Radicals


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Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor and Total Water Measurements

  • Cloud and aerosol particles

    • Chemical composition

    • Number, size, volume

    • Habit

    • Extinction and absorption

  • Source gases and tracers

    • Hydrocarbons, Formaldehyde

    • HN03, NOy, CO2, CO, HCl, CH3I, HCl

    • Sulfur species (e.g. H2SO4, SO2)

  • Radicals

    • NO, NO2, OH

    • HO2, RO2


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Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements

  • In-flow & out-flow in-situ UAV: Medium platform

    • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, FTIR, Ultra-violet spectrometer (UV-Vis),atmospheric samplers

  • Convective in-situ UAV: Medium platform

    • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, FTIR, Ultra-violet spectrometer (UV-Vis), Electrical Activity

  • Remote UAV: Very Long Endurance platform

    • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, Drop-sonde, FTIR , Optical Imager, UV-Vis, 95 GHz radar


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Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements

  • Sensor Measurements

  • Lidar #1 - water vapor

  • Lidar #2 – temperature, ozone, aerosol and cloud particles

  • Microwave – temperature

  • Doppler radar – winds

  • UV-Vis - ozone

  • FTIR – ozone, IR radiance

  • Optical imager – lightning

  • 95 Ghz radar – aerosol and cloud particles (ice water content)

  • Atmospheric samplers – cloud and aerosol particles, source gases and tracers, radicals



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Key mission characteristics: cont’d

High altitude, long endurance

3 – 5 days

All weather

Convective in-situ platform

Range: 22,000 nmi

Terrain avoidance

In-flow in-situ platform

Formation (coordinated) flight

Multi-ship operations

Quick turn around

Re-tasking mission during flight

Remote platform observations

Weather, cloud, chemical forecasts

Vertical profiling

Payload directed flight

4 week campaign with 2 -3 flights

Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements


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Active Fire, Emissions, cont’dand Plume Assessment

  • Science objective: understand the influence of an active fire on carbon cycle dynamics

  • Measurements:

    • Atmospheric chemistry

    • Thermal intensity time-series

    • Plume composition: volume, albedo, particle size distribution

    • Fuel type and quality


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Active Fire, Emissions, cont’dand Plume Assessment

  • Remote UAV: Medium or Large platform

    • Imaging Spectrometer [thermal, midwave, shortwave IR]

      • Hyperspectral (350 – 2500 nm)

      • Downword looking port

      • 5 – 20m horizontal, 5 – 50 km swath

      • < 50 kg weight

    • Lidar

      • Resolution: .05 – 20 micron

      • Downword looking port

      • 1 m horizontal, 15 cm vertical

      • < 3 km swath

      • 30 kg weight

  • In-situ UAV: Medium platform

    • Isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    • Gas chromatographer

    • Non-dispersive infrared (IR) analyzer



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Active Fire, Emissions, cont’dand Plume Assessment

  • Key mission characteristics:

    • Endurance: 24 – 72 hours

    • All weather

      • In-situ platform flies in plume of fire

    • Formation (coordinated) flying

    • Multi-ship operations

    • Quick deployment / Quick turn-around

    • Re-tasking mission during flight

    • Payload directed flight

    • Engine emissions can’t affect measurements


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Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle cont’d

  • Science objective: local to regional sea-air flux measurements that reduce uncertainty in global measurements and models of CO2 flux

  • Measurements

    • Measure winds

    • CO2

    • Sea state (obstacle avoidance)

    • Surface temperature


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Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle cont’d

  • UAV: small platform

  • CO2 sensor (1 sample/m @ 150 m/sec)

  • INU & GPS

  • Hydrometer

  • Radiometer

  • Ocean optics spectrometer

  • Hyper-spectral radiometer

  • Interferometer



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Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle cont’d

  • Key mission characteristics:

    • Endurance: 48 hr

    • Low altitude flight: < 10K ft

    • Coordinated flight (swarm)

    • Multi-ship operations

    • Re-tasking mission during flight

      • Sensor payload

      • Satellite data

      • Model forecasts

    • Vertical profiling

    • Remote base operation (potentially ships)

    • Payload directed flight


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Antarctic Explorer (Cryosphere) cont’d

  • Science objective:

    • Provide data for validating simulations of the dynamics of ice and land topography, iceberg volume, glacier profiles and glacier channel profiles

    • Provide data on the effect on the ocean environment

  • Measurements

  • Time dependence of ice and land topography

  • Coastal and open ocean salinity temperature, and currents, at surface and beneath iceberg depths

  • Time evolution of targeted iceberg freeboard volume, land glacier profiles, and glacier channel profiles

  • Atmospheric boundary layer observations at high space/time resolution


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Antarctic Explorer cont’d

  • UAV: Medium or Large platform

    • Optical imager

    • Magnetometer

    • Radar depth sounder: ice sheet thickness

    • Drop-buoys: sea salinity, currents (at surface and beneath

    • iceberg depths), temperature

    • Scanning Lidar: topographic mapping



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Antarctic Explorer cont’d

  • Key mission characteristics:

    • Endurance: > 12 hr on-station (low altitude)

    • Range: Antarctic continent

    • All weather

    • Terrain avoidance

    • Quick deploy

    • Quick turn around

    • Re-tasking mission during flight

      • Dynamic event, e.g. ice shelf break-up

    • Remote base operations

    • One mission every 3 days for 2 months, during ice break-ups


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Vegetation Structure, Composition, cont’dand Canopy Chemistry

  • Science objective: Provide 3-dimensional vegetation structure and information on composition and chemistry

  • Measurements

    • Terrestrial biomass

    • Leaf-level chemistry (eg. lignin, xanthophylls, etc.)

    • Water canopy content


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UAV 1: Medium Platform cont’d

Synthetic aperature radar (L=structure)

5-10m horizontal; 1m vertical

5-20km swath

single pass interferometry

UAV 2: Medium Platform

Synthetic aperature radar

(p=ground return)

5-10m horizontal; 1m vertical

5-20km swath

single pass interferometry

Imaging spectrometer

Hyperspectral (350nm-2500nm), 10nm channels

downward-looking port

5-20m horizontal

5-50km swath

UAV 3: Medium Platform

Synthetic aperature radar

(x=top of canopy)

Lidar

2 frequency (525m, 1050nm), waveform digitized

downward-looking port

1m horizontal; 15cm vertical

Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry



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Vegetation Structure, Composition, cont’d and Canopy Chemistry

  • Key mission characteristics:

    • Endurance: 12 – 24 hr

    • Formation (coordinated) flight

    • Multi-ship operations

    • Flights weekly during seasons of interest


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Summary cont’d

  • Why are we here?

    • To supply science sensor technology gap data to fit within user-defined future UAV uses

    • To document power/propulsion shortfalls

  • What are we going to do?

    • Meet in two sessions to collect the data

      • Mission based

      • Technology based

  • What do we hope to gain?

    • Updates to the capabilities assessment which will enable efficient funding policies of key technologies


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Logistics cont’d

  • Mission session at 1:30

    • Sensor track: Room 335

    • Power and Propulsion Track: Room 312

  • No later than 5:30 PM: report out within each track

  • Lunch Logistics…

    • TBD


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