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Mission-Based Approach. Needed a context for sensors, power and propulsion to use for examining future capabilities Aid to answering question: where are the technology gaps?

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mission based approach
Mission-Based Approach
  • Needed a context for sensors, power and propulsion to use for examining future capabilities
    • Aid to answering question: where are the technology gaps?
  • Make use of previously developed conceptualized missions (SSMF workshop), developed by science community, to provide the context
    • Sampling of missions to generate discussion only
    • Warning: these missions are not designed to meet specifically derived scientific objectives
      • System engineering approach not used in defining these missions
      • Lack of specific information may make task seem unconstrained
    • Assumptions and inferences on sensors and power and propulsion attendees will be required
      • This is OK!!! Just document assumptions and inferences
      • Keep the discussion flowing!
mission characteristics
Mission Characteristics
  • Six Mission descriptions provided:
    • Hurricane Genesis, Evolution, and Landfall
    • Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements
    • Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment
    • Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle
    • Antarctic Explorer (Cyrosphere)
    • Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry
  • Potential platform class(es) to assign to a mission
    • Daughter ship UAV (launched from mother ship)
    • Small UAV (~20 lbs payload)
    • Medium UAV
    • Large UAV (~2000 lbs payload)
    • Very Long Endurance UAV (3 days +)
  • Assumptions across all missions
    • For sensor track: Platform is capable of performing the mission as described in the profile
    • OTH network centric communications
    • ‘File and fly’ access to airspace
    • ‘Plug and Play’ open architecture
    • Capable of 100% nominal autonomous sensor operation
hurricane genesis evolution and landfall
Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall
  • Science objective: Observation of hurricanes to improve predictions of hurricane paths and landfall.
  • Remote, high altitude measurements:
  • Tropospheric measurements:
  • Boundary Layer:
  • Precipitation
  • Clouds
  • Meteorological sounding
  • Electrical activity
  • Microphysics
  • Dust
  • 4-D thermodynamics
  • Winds
  • Sea surface temperature
  • Surface winds
  • Surface imaging
  • Turbulent flux
  • Surface state: wave spectra, sea spume, etc
hurricane genesis evolution and landfall4
Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall
  • High altitude, Mother Ship UAV: Very Long Endurance Platform
  • Tropospheric UAV: Daughter Platform
  • Boundary layer UAV: Small Platform
  • Optical Imager: lightning
  • Meteorological sonde
  • Daughter ships
  • Radar: cloud and precipitation
  • GPS reflectance: surface wave spectra
  • Lidar: surface wave spectra
  • Sounder: water vapor and temperature
  • Radiometer: cloud and precipitation
  • Microphysics (typical of drop-sondes, thermodynamics)
  • Infrared pyrometer: SST
  • Winds
  • Optical imager: surface imaging
  • Meteorological sonde: in-situ
  • XRBT thermocline
  • Turbulence flux
hurricane genesis evolution and landfall6
Hurricane Genesis, Evolution and Landfall
  • Key mission characteristics:
    • High Altitude, Long Endurance
      • Remote mother platform: 65K ft / 2-3 weeks
    • Daughter ships => deploy/retrieve
    • Formation (coordinated) flight
    • Multi-ship operation
    • Quick turn-around
    • Re-tasking mission during flight
      • Satellite data
      • Remote, mother platform observations
      • Scientist
    • Payload directed flight
    • Terrain avoidance
      • boundary layer platform
cloud aerosol water vapor and total water measurements
Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements
  • Science objective: study transformations of aerosols and gases in following cloud systems
    • Convective systems
    • Sea breeze cloud formation
    • Marine stratiform
    • Contrails in the Central U.S. in air traffic regions
    • Synoptic scale systems & Fronts
    • Cirrus outflow
  • Measurement
  • Water vapor, total water, water isotopes
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Winds
  • Ozone
  • Lightning
  • Aerosols and cloud particles
  • Source gases and tracers
  • IR radiance
  • Radicals
cloud aerosol water vapor and total water measurements8
Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor and Total Water Measurements
  • Cloud and aerosol particles
    • Chemical composition
    • Number, size, volume
    • Habit
    • Extinction and absorption
  • Source gases and tracers
    • Hydrocarbons, Formaldehyde
    • HN03, NOy, CO2, CO, HCl, CH3I, HCl
    • Sulfur species (e.g. H2SO4, SO2)
  • Radicals
    • NO, NO2, OH
    • HO2, RO2
cloud aerosol water vapor and total water measurements9
Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements
  • In-flow & out-flow in-situ UAV: Medium platform
    • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, FTIR, Ultra-violet spectrometer (UV-Vis),atmospheric samplers
  • Convective in-situ UAV: Medium platform
    • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, FTIR, Ultra-violet spectrometer (UV-Vis), Electrical Activity
  • Remote UAV: Very Long Endurance platform
    • Lidar, Microwave, Doppler Radar, Drop-sonde, FTIR , Optical Imager, UV-Vis, 95 GHz radar
cloud aerosol water vapor and total water measurements10
Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements
  • Sensor Measurements
  • Lidar #1 - water vapor
  • Lidar #2 – temperature, ozone, aerosol and cloud particles
  • Microwave – temperature
  • Doppler radar – winds
  • UV-Vis - ozone
  • FTIR – ozone, IR radiance
  • Optical imager – lightning
  • 95 Ghz radar – aerosol and cloud particles (ice water content)
  • Atmospheric samplers – cloud and aerosol particles, source gases and tracers, radicals
cloud aerosol water vapor and total water measurements12
Key mission characteristics:

High altitude, long endurance

3 – 5 days

All weather

Convective in-situ platform

Range: 22,000 nmi

Terrain avoidance

In-flow in-situ platform

Formation (coordinated) flight

Multi-ship operations

Quick turn around

Re-tasking mission during flight

Remote platform observations

Weather, cloud, chemical forecasts

Vertical profiling

Payload directed flight

4 week campaign with 2 -3 flights

Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Total Water Measurements
active fire emissions and plume assessment
Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment
  • Science objective: understand the influence of an active fire on carbon cycle dynamics
  • Measurements:
    • Atmospheric chemistry
    • Thermal intensity time-series
    • Plume composition: volume, albedo, particle size distribution
    • Fuel type and quality
active fire emissions and plume assessment14
Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment
  • Remote UAV: Medium or Large platform
    • Imaging Spectrometer [thermal, midwave, shortwave IR]
      • Hyperspectral (350 – 2500 nm)
      • Downword looking port
      • 5 – 20m horizontal, 5 – 50 km swath
      • < 50 kg weight
    • Lidar
      • Resolution: .05 – 20 micron
      • Downword looking port
      • 1 m horizontal, 15 cm vertical
      • < 3 km swath
      • 30 kg weight
  • In-situ UAV: Medium platform
    • Isotope ratio mass spectrometers
    • Gas chromatographer
    • Non-dispersive infrared (IR) analyzer
active fire emissions and plume assessment16
Active Fire, Emissions, and Plume Assessment
  • Key mission characteristics:
    • Endurance: 24 – 72 hours
    • All weather
      • In-situ platform flies in plume of fire
    • Formation (coordinated) flying
    • Multi-ship operations
    • Quick deployment / Quick turn-around
    • Re-tasking mission during flight
    • Payload directed flight
    • Engine emissions can’t affect measurements
southern ocean carbon cycle
Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle
  • Science objective: local to regional sea-air flux measurements that reduce uncertainty in global measurements and models of CO2 flux
  • Measurements
    • Measure winds
    • CO2
    • Sea state (obstacle avoidance)
    • Surface temperature
southern ocean carbon cycle18
Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle
  • UAV: small platform
  • CO2 sensor (1 sample/m @ 150 m/sec)
  • INU & GPS
  • Hydrometer
  • Radiometer
  • Ocean optics spectrometer
  • Hyper-spectral radiometer
  • Interferometer
southern ocean carbon cycle20
Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle
  • Key mission characteristics:
    • Endurance: 48 hr
    • Low altitude flight: < 10K ft
    • Coordinated flight (swarm)
    • Multi-ship operations
    • Re-tasking mission during flight
      • Sensor payload
      • Satellite data
      • Model forecasts
    • Vertical profiling
    • Remote base operation (potentially ships)
    • Payload directed flight
antarctic explorer cryosphere
Antarctic Explorer (Cryosphere)
  • Science objective:
    • Provide data for validating simulations of the dynamics of ice and land topography, iceberg volume, glacier profiles and glacier channel profiles
    • Provide data on the effect on the ocean environment
  • Measurements
  • Time dependence of ice and land topography
  • Coastal and open ocean salinity temperature, and currents, at surface and beneath iceberg depths
  • Time evolution of targeted iceberg freeboard volume, land glacier profiles, and glacier channel profiles
  • Atmospheric boundary layer observations at high space/time resolution
antarctic explorer
Antarctic Explorer
  • UAV: Medium or Large platform
    • Optical imager
    • Magnetometer
    • Radar depth sounder: ice sheet thickness
    • Drop-buoys: sea salinity, currents (at surface and beneath
    • iceberg depths), temperature
    • Scanning Lidar: topographic mapping
antarctic explorer24
Antarctic Explorer
  • Key mission characteristics:
    • Endurance: > 12 hr on-station (low altitude)
    • Range: Antarctic continent
    • All weather
    • Terrain avoidance
    • Quick deploy
    • Quick turn around
    • Re-tasking mission during flight
      • Dynamic event, e.g. ice shelf break-up
    • Remote base operations
    • One mission every 3 days for 2 months, during ice break-ups
vegetation structure composition and canopy chemistry
Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry
  • Science objective: Provide 3-dimensional vegetation structure and information on composition and chemistry
  • Measurements
    • Terrestrial biomass
    • Leaf-level chemistry (eg. lignin, xanthophylls, etc.)
    • Water canopy content
vegetation structure composition and canopy chemistry26
UAV 1: Medium Platform

Synthetic aperature radar (L=structure)

5-10m horizontal; 1m vertical

5-20km swath

single pass interferometry

UAV 2: Medium Platform

Synthetic aperature radar

(p=ground return)

5-10m horizontal; 1m vertical

5-20km swath

single pass interferometry

Imaging spectrometer

Hyperspectral (350nm-2500nm), 10nm channels

downward-looking port

5-20m horizontal

5-50km swath

UAV 3: Medium Platform

Synthetic aperature radar

(x=top of canopy)

Lidar

2 frequency (525m, 1050nm), waveform digitized

downward-looking port

1m horizontal; 15cm vertical

Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry
vegetation structure composition and canopy chemistry28
Vegetation Structure, Composition, and Canopy Chemistry
  • Key mission characteristics:
    • Endurance: 12 – 24 hr
    • Formation (coordinated) flight
    • Multi-ship operations
    • Flights weekly during seasons of interest
summary
Summary
  • Why are we here?
    • To supply science sensor technology gap data to fit within user-defined future UAV uses
    • To document power/propulsion shortfalls
  • What are we going to do?
    • Meet in two sessions to collect the data
      • Mission based
      • Technology based
  • What do we hope to gain?
    • Updates to the capabilities assessment which will enable efficient funding policies of key technologies
logistics
Logistics
  • Mission session at 1:30
    • Sensor track: Room 335
    • Power and Propulsion Track: Room 312
  • No later than 5:30 PM: report out within each track
  • Lunch Logistics…
    • TBD