introduction to simulating radio propagation models and cooja arm
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Introduction to Simulating radio propagation models and COOJA ARM. One radio…. REFRACTION. REFLECTION. DIFFRACTION. … receiving a radio signal Typically 4 different categories Problem: What happens to the radio signal? (And how is sound quality affected?). SCATTERING.

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Presentation Transcript
one radio
One radio…

REFRACTION

REFLECTION

DIFFRACTION

  • … receiving a radio signal
  • Typically 4 different categories
  • Problem:
    • What happens to the radio signal?
    • (And how is sound quality affected?)

SCATTERING

wsn radio model types
WSN radio model types
  • Unit Disk Graph
    • COOJA’s Standard Radio Medium
  • Bit Error Ratio (BER)
  • Collected statistical data (or empirical models)
  • Ray tracing
cooja arm
COOJA ARM
  • Advanced Radio Medium
  • “Advanced” when compared to “Standard” :)
  • Radio propagation models introduction
  • How ARM works
wiki s definitions
Wiki’s definitions
  • Radio Propagation

“... is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another.”

  • Radio Propagation Model

“... characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions.”

empirical models
Empirical models
  • Lots of different models exist
  • Outdoor
    • City, Terrain, Rain, Earth curvature
    • Okumura model built using data collected in Tokyo
  • Indoor
    • ITU Model for indoor Attenuation
    • Log Distance Path Loss Model
    • Typical parameters: frequency, distance, number of floors, coefficients tuned to different environments etc.
  • Above models based on empirical data
analytical approach
Analytical approach
  • Based on ray tracing
  • Calculates multi-path effects
  • Used in COOJA ARM
small scale vs large scale
Small-scale vs. Large-scale
  • Small-scale effects
    • Sum of many received signal from different directions
    • Often Gaussian random
    • Scattering
  • Large-scale effects
    • Shadowing
    • Reflections
free space propagation model
Free Space Propagation Model
  • (FSPL)
  • Predicts signal strength for LOS paths

Antenna gains

Wavelength

Transmitted vs. received power

Distance

ray tracing in arm
Ray tracing in ARM
  • 2D positions
  • Supports attenuating obstacles
    • Only rectangles
  • Refractions
  • Reflections
  • Diffractions
  • Potential support:
    • Scatterings
using arm
Using ARM
  • Registers two plugins
    • Changing formula parameters
    • Visualizing radio coverage
  • Listens to all radios in the simulation
    • Transmitted power
    • Antenna gains
    • Packet lengths
    • SNR threshold
    • (Channel)
formula viewer13
From radio specification

Default valuesMay be radio specific

Formula Viewer
formula viewer14
From radio specification

Default valuesMay be radio specific

Formula Viewer
formula viewer15
FSPL mentioned earlier

Fixed “penalty” constants

FUTURE:Should be replaced by angle dependent formulas

Maximum values used by ray tracer

May become very time-consuming =)

Formula Viewer
area viewer
Area Viewer
  • Shows radios, obstacles and channel propagation
area viewer18
Area Viewer
  • Obstacles are set by analyzing the background image
area viewer19
Area Viewer
  • User may track ray paths from a transmitter to a point
    • Uses the current formula settings
area viewer20
Area Viewer
  • Show surroundings of transmitter:
    • Signal strength
    • SNR ratio
    • Probability of reception
    • Delay spread
area viewer21
Area Viewer

Received signal strength vs. Probability of reception

future work
Future work
  • Validate models
  • Parameter estimation / Model calibration
    • From actual measurements
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