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Instructional Technology and Media for the Classroom. Why Use Visuals?. The audience is 43% more likely to be persuaded Same material can be covered in 25-40% less time Retention is improved up to 38% David Peoples (1992), Presentations Plus, John Wiley and Sons. Why Use Visuals?.

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why use visuals
Why Use Visuals?
  • The audience is 43% more likely to be persuaded
  • Same material can be covered in 25-40% less time
  • Retention is improved up to 38%
          • David Peoples (1992), Presentations Plus, John Wiley and Sons.
why use visuals3
Why Use Visuals?
  • The presenter is perceived as being
    • More professional
    • More persuasive
    • More credible
    • More interesting
    • Better prepared
          • David Peoples (1992), Presentations Plus, John Wiley and Sons.
types of visual media
Chalk/White Board

Flip Chart


Actual Objects

Flannel Board

Bulletin Board

Opaque Projector

Overhead projector


PowerPoint presentations

Films and Videos

World Wide Web

Computer software


embedded objects in plastic resin

words written on glove fingers

Types of Visual Media
chalk white board
Chalk/White Board
  • Every room has one - use them
  • Write LARGE and legible
  • Always title what you put on the board
    • Compartments of the ruminant stomach
    • Parts of the flower
  • Don’t teach to the board
  • Avoid turning your back to the students for long periods of time
flip chart
Flip Chart
  • Can be prepared in advance
  • Easy to make and use
  • A good change of pace
  • Relatively inexpensive
  • Can utilize color
  • Portable
  • Turning pages reveal information and paces your presentation
  • Portable
  • Good for diagrams, illustrations or collections
    • leaves
    • insects
    • seeds
actual objects
Actual Objects
  • Whenever possible, bring actual objections into the class
    • sparkplug
    • oxy-acetylene rig
    • plants
    • chicken
    • tools
  • Keep the object out of sight until ready to use (play on curiosity)
flannel board
Flannel Board
  • An “oldie” but goody
  • 3 x 3 Board is covered with flannel
    • Pieces of flannel are cut out in shapes and stuck to the board
      • Great for teaching landscape design
    • Words can be written on strips of paper (with little bits of sandpaper glued to the back)
bulletin board
Bulletin Board
  • Can communicate information
  • Should be changed regularly
  • Good activity for students
opaque projector
Opaque Projector
  • A real dinosaur
  • Used to project pages of a book or actual objects (provided they are thin)
overhead transparency
Overhead Transparency
  • Can cover more material
  • Prepared in advance
  • Face the class
  • Professional looking
  • Can skip material
  • Can use a “cheat” sheet easily
  • Can use over and over
  • A smart teacher will carry a camera at all times
  • Slides of student projects make excellent teaching aides
powerpoint presentation
PowerPoint Presentation
  • Used by cutting edge teachers
  • Has various features that can hold the classes attention
  • Projected through:
    • A LCD projector on the overhead
    • A converter hooked to a television
    • A video projector
  • More later...
films and videos
Films and Videos
  • Films and filmstrips are rapidly disappearing
  • Sources of Free Videos
    • Venard Films
    • Farm Film Foundation
  • At the start of the year, order videos for the entire year
world wide web computer software
World Wide Web/Computer Software
  • Thousands of agriculture sites can be accessed
  • There is considerable agricultural software titles
  • They can be projected using the same technology as PowerPoint presentations
principles of designing visuals
Principles of Designing Visuals
  • Avoid using all upper case
  • Eliminate unnecessary words
  • Use consistent fonts, sizes and weights
  • Remember the six-by-six rule
  • Limit type faces and type sizes
how big should the letters be
How big should the letters be?
  • A transparency held up (no projector) should be readable at six feet.


how big should the letters be19
How big should the letters be?
  • You should be able to read a slide held at arm’s length.


how big should the letters be20
How big should the letters be?
  • For computer generated presentations, use the pre-designed templates in the presentation program
    • If electronic presentation on television, use a 40+ font, sans serif


color and design
Color and Design
  • Dark colors make the best background for slides and slide shows
  • Light colors are best for overheads
  • Use clip art sparingly
  • Keep the same design through out the presentation
electronic presentations
Electronic Presentations
  • Don’t get carried away on different transition effects!
  • Use sound in moderation
  • Use animation in moderation
major presentation programs
Major Presentation Programs
  • PowerPoint
  • Harvard Graphics
  • Corel Presentations
  • Astound
  • Freelance
  • Persuasion
steps in preparing a powerpoint presentation
Steps in Preparing a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Open the PowerPoint Program
  • Select a template
    • A template is a predesigned format for a presentation.

I say, er I say how many templates comes with PowerPoint?

  • CD tracks can be played!
preparing presentations
Preparing Presentations
  • After text, graphics (clip art and video), and sounds are in the presentation then:
    • Make text builds, animations and slide transitions
      • Slide Show - Custom Animations
    • Add other special effects
      • Slide Show - Action Settings
    • Quick and Dirty shortcuts
adding pizzaz
Adding Pizzaz!
  • For simple animations, insert a clip art graphic on to your slide and then add an appropriate animation effect from the “slide show menu”
    • A sports car clip art was placed above this red section on the right edge.
    • Then “crawl from left” was selected from the animation effects menu.
non linear presentations
Non-Linear Presentations
  • Prepare all your slides
  • On the “home” slide insert clip art, objects or words for people to click on to go other places
  • For each launch point:
    • Slide Show
      • Action Settings...
        • Hyperlink to:
          • Slide

Click here to see an example

odds and ends
Odds and Ends
  • Links to Web sites can be inserted in PowerPoint (must have the URL)
  • If the computer is connected to the Internet, you will go to the web site
  • Slide Show
    • Action Settings
      • Hyperlink to:
        • URL

odds and ends30
Odds and Ends
  • YOU can put your PowerPoint presentations on the World Wide Web in less than 10 minutes (provided you have access to a web server)