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Branding and Naming Strategies. Chapters 11 & 12. Brand-Product Matrix: Relationships Diagramed. Brand line - all products sold under a brand Brand portfolio -set of all brands and brand lines a company offers in a product category; used to maximize equity (BR, Gap, ON)

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brand product matrix relationships diagramed
Brand-Product Matrix:Relationships Diagramed
  • Brand line - all products sold under a brand
  • Brand portfolio -set of all brands and brand lines a company offers in a product category; used to maximize equity (BR, Gap, ON)
  • Product line - products similar in price, TA, or distribution
  • Product mix - all product lines
  • Brand mix - all brand lines
breadth of branding strategy product mix
Breadth of Branding Strategy:Product Mix
  • Aggregate market factors - size, growth, stage, profits
  • Category factors - competition, bargaining power of buyers & suppliers
  • Environmental factors - technological, economic, political, social
depth of branding strategy
Depth of Branding Strategy

Multiple brands are used to pursue multiple market segments

Segment Ford brand

Luxury (MB, Lexis) Jaguar, LRover

Up-market (BMW,Cad) Volvo, Lincoln, Astin Martin

Mid-price (HTN, GM, Ford, Mercury,

Chrysler) Mazda

depth tactics
Depth Tactics
  • Flankers - to create stronger POP with competition so flagship brand keeps desired position (Philip Morris’ use of discount Basic to protect Marlboro hi $)
  • Cash cow - milked till dead (Trac II)
  • Low end entry or hi end prestige - sub brands used to leverage on basis of price or quality (BMW Z3, 700 series)
brand hierarchy
Brand Hierarchy
  • Corporate - GM
  • Family - Buick
  • Individual - Park Avenue
  • Modifier (model) - Ultra
branding system
Branding System
  • Product brand - individual positioning (P&Gs Ariel, Tide, Dash detergents)
  • Line brand - cross branding (Renault)
  • Range brand - one name for a group (Green Giant vegetables)
  • Umbrella brand - one brand for products in many markets (Canon copiers, cameras, equipment)
  • Source brand - family with different names (Calvin Kline perfume, clothing lines)
  • Endorsing brand - diverse products & brands (General Motors cars)

Corporate level image determinants

  • Common product attributes, benefits (Quality, innovation)
  • People and relationships (customer orientation)
  • Values and programs (social resp)
  • Corporate credibility (expertise, trust, likeability)
designing branding strategy
Designing branding strategy

Corporate dominant

corporate brands (Kellogg)

house brands (Frosted Flakes

Mixed brands

duel brands (equal prominence)

endorsed brands (Chevy Blazer)

Brand dominant

mono brand (Absolute)

furtive brand (identity secret; Turning Leaf)

corporate product relationships
  • Single entity: Federal Express
  • Brand dominance: Marlboro (PM)
  • Equal dominance: Nissan Maxima
  • Mixed dominance: Bosch/ Blaupunikt
  • Corporate dominance: Xerox

Acura - from equal (Acura Legend) to corporate dominance (Acura 3.5RL)


Characterize Mercedes’ Benz brand hierarchy. How would you improve the company’s branding strategy?

Characterize Nissan’ hierarchy. How does their strategy differ from that of MBZ?

naming choice for new products
Naming choice for new products
  • New brand name
  • Apply existing brand name (TracIII)
  • Combination of new with existing brand name (brand extension)
  • line extension - new flavor, Absolute citron
  • category extension - Swiss Army luggage
expanding meaning with brand extensions
Expanding meaning with brand extensions

brand product extensionmeaning

Crayola crayons paint, clay kid craft

Swiss Army knife luggage adventure

Mont Blanc pens watches luxury

Billabong surfboard snow & all sports

skate boards

master brands
Master brands

Owning an association in the consumer’s mind: Band-Aid, Alka-Seltzer, Jell-O, Crayola, Vaseline

Difficult to extend directly to other product categories.

Directions for leveraging master brands are:

  • Sub-branding to give new element (DuPont Stainmaster carpet)
  • Super-branding adds improved element (Everready Energizer batteries)
  • Brand bundling fortifies master w/co-branding
  • Brand bridging to new category
you be the judge
You be the judge

Evaluate whether or not the following brand extensions work and why

Honda lawn mowers

Smuckers’ ketchup

Visa traveler’s checks

Cracker Jack cereal

Harley Davidson wine coolers