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Adolescence. Cognitive Development. Conceptions of Adolescence. Biological perspective (G. Stanley Hall) Biologically-determined period of “storm-and-stress” Physical changes create psychological conflict Social perspective (Margaret Mead) Turmoil not typical: 2% increase in problems

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adolescence

Adolescence

Cognitive Development

conceptions of adolescence
Conceptions of Adolescence
  • Biological perspective (G. Stanley Hall)
    • Biologically-determined period of “storm-and-stress”
    • Physical changes create psychological conflict
  • Social perspective (Margaret Mead)
    • Turmoil not typical: 2% increase in problems
    • Cultural research suggest turmoil is socially determined

Both nature and nurture!

when does adolescence begin end
When does adolescence begin & end?
  • Puberty is the physical transition to adulthood
    • Around 11 or 12 yrs
    • Girls 2 yrs before boys
  • Industrialized nations:
    • Early: 11-14
    • Middle: 14-18
    • Late: 18-21
    • Emerging adults: 21 to ??
  • Non-industrialized societies have shorter transition to adulthood

Do you like being labeled as an adolescent?

piaget s theory
Piaget’s Theory

Formal operational stage (12+)

  • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: develop general theory & deduce specific hypotheses
    • Task: pendulum problem

What influences the speed with which a pendulum swings?

piaget s theory1
Piaget’s Theory

Formal operational stage (12+)

  • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: develop general theory & deduce specific hypotheses
    • Task: pendulum problem

What influences the speed with which a pendulum swings?

  • Hypotheses
  • Length of string
  • Weight of object
  • Height of object
  • Force on object

School-aged children unsystematic & do not notice all possibilities

Adolescents vary one factor at a time while holding others constant

piaget s theory2
Piaget’s Theory

Formal operational stage (12+)

  • Propositional thought: assess logic of verbal statements without real-world circumstances
    • Task: Poker chip problem

Are the following statements true, false, or are you uncertain?

  • Either the chip behind the box is green or it is not green.
  • The chip behind the box is green and it is not green.
  • True
  • False
  • Uncertain
  • Uncertain
piaget s theory3
Piaget’s Theory

Formal operational stage (12+)

  • Propositional thought: assess logic of verbal statements without real-world circumstances
    • Task: Poker chip problem

Are the following statements true, false, or are you uncertain?

  • Either the chip is green or it is not green.
  • The chip is green and it is not green.
  • True
  • False
  • True
  • True
limitation of theory
Limitation of Theory

Are all people capable of formal operations?

  • 40-60% of college students fail tasks
  • Experience with the subject matter
    • Village & tribal societies less likely to master formal operations

Piaget’s theory is not completely correct!

** Scientific Reasoning**

What influences chances of solving tasks?

consequences of abstract thought
Consequences of Abstract Thought
  • Argumentativeness: use facts, ideas, & hypotheses to build one’s “case”
    • Can promote cognitive development via scaffolding
  • Self-consciousness & self-focusing: reflect on own thoughts, make & evaluate judgments
    • Imaginary audience
    • Personal fable
why do adolescents say
“It wont happen to me.”

“Everyone is looking at me!”

“Mom, you don’t understand.”

Personal fable

Imaginary audience

Personal fable

Why do adolescents say…
consequences of abstract thought1
Consequences of Abstract Thought
  • Idealism & criticism: enables them to define own values but also criticize others
    • Sometimes go to the extreme
  • Planning & decision making: monitor own behavior & evaluate options, but…
    • Too many options are difficult to handle
    • Poor or risky decision making can occur

** Gender differences & learning in school **

video inside the teenage brain
Video: Inside the Teenage Brain
  • What part of the brain is still developing in adolescence?
  • What are the behavioral outcomes of brain development?
  • Why do adolescence feel misunderstood?
  • Describe adolescent sleep patterns and how it affect daily life?