Valid and Invalid arguments. Definition of Argument. Sequence of statements: Statement 1; Statement 2; Therefore , Statement 3 . Statements 1 and 2 are called premises . Statement 3 is called conclusion . Examples of Arguments. It is raining or it is snowing;
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Therefore, Statement 3.
It is not snowing;
Therefore, it is raining.
x is an even integer;
are statement forms
instead of statements,
then the resulting form is called
for any substitution of statement variables,
if the premises are true,
then the conclusion is also true.
valid argument form.
then the argument form is valid;
b.If there is a row in which conclusion is false
then the argument form is invalid.
p and q;
if p then q;
p or q;
if p then q;
p or q.
p or q
and knaves always lie.
V says: At least three of us are knights.
W says: At most three of us are knights.
X says: Exactly five of us are knights.
Y says: Exactly two of us are knights.
Z says: Exactly one of us is a knight.