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RNA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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RNA. Ribonucleic Acid. Structure of RNA. Single stranded Ribose Sugar 5 carbon sugar Phosphate group Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine. Types of RNA. Three main types Messenger RNA (mRNA) – transfers DNA code to ribosomes for translation.

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RNA

Ribonucleic Acid

structure of rna
Structure of RNA
  • Single stranded
  • Ribose Sugar
  • 5 carbon sugar
  • Phosphate group
  • Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine
types of rna
Types of RNA
  • Three main types
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) – transfers DNA code to ribosomes for translation.
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) – brings amino acids to ribosomes for protein synthesis.
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – Ribosomes are made of rRNA and protein.
transcription
Transcription
  • RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into complementary sequence in RNA, a process called transcription.
  • During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of mRNA.
how does it work
How Does it Work?
  • RNA Polymerase looks for a region on the DNA known as a promoter, where it binds and begins transcription.
  • RNA strands are then edited. Some parts are removed (introns) - which are not expressed – and other that are left are called exons or expressed genes.
the genetic code
The Genetic Code
  • This is the language of mRNA.
  • Based on the 4 bases of mRNA.
  • “Words” are 3 RNA sequences called codons.
  • The strand aaacguucgccc would be separated as aaa-cgu-ucg-ccc the amino acids would then be Lysine – Arginine – Serine - Proline
translation
Translation
  • During translation, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins.
  • A – Transcription occurs in nucleus.
  • B – mRNA moves to the cytoplasm then to the ribosomes. tRNA “read” the mRNA and obtain the amino acid coded for.
  • C – Ribosomes attach amino acids together forming a polypeptide chain.
  • D – Polypeptide chain keeps growing until a stop codon is reached.
mutations
Mutations
  • Gene mutations result from changes in a single gene. Chromosomal mutations involve changes whole chromosomes.
gene mutation
Gene Mutation
  • Point Mutation – Affect one nucleotide thus occurring at a single point on the gene. Usually one nucleotide is substituted for another nucleotide.
  • Frameshift Mutation – Inserting an extra nucleotide or deleting a nucleotide causes the entire code to “shift”.
chromosomal mutations
Chromosomal Mutations
  • Deletion – Part of a chromosome is deleted
  • Duplication – part of a chromosome is duplicated
  • Inversion – chromosome twists and inverts the code.
  • Translocation – Genetic information is traded between nonhomologous chromosomes.
gene regulation
Gene Regulation
  • In simple cells (prokaryotic) lac genes which are controlled by stimuli, turn genes on and off.
  • In complex cells (eukaryotic) this process is not as simple. Promoter sequences regulate gene operation.