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Introduction to Electronic Access Control. Basic Electricity, Electric Locking Hardware and Access Control Systems. By Paul Chandler of IDN–Inc. What Is Electricity?. Movement of “free electrons” between atoms. What is Electricity?.

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introduction to electronic access control

Introduction to Electronic Access Control

Basic Electricity, Electric Locking Hardware and Access Control Systems.

By Paul Chandler of IDN–Inc.

what is electricity
What Is Electricity?
  • Movement of “free electrons” between atoms
what is electricity3
What is Electricity?
  • The tendency to inhibit the movement of free electrons is called “resistance”
  • Some elements are good “conductors”
  • Some elements are poor “conductors”
what is a circuit
What Is A Circuit?
  • Power Source
  • Load
  • Conductors
  • Switches
basic circuit
Basic Circuit

+

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

ohm s law
Ohm’s Law
  • E = I X R
  • E is Electromotive Force or Volts
  • I is Current or Amps
  • R is Resistance or Ohms
  • Ohm’s Law is an Equation
power formula
Power Formula
  • P = I X E
  • P is Power or Watts
  • I is Current or Amps
  • E is Electromotive Force or Volts
  • Power Formula is also an Equation
ac and dc
AC and DC
  • DC is Direct Current – Electrons move in only one direction
  • AC is Alternating Current – Electrons change direction 120 times a second
dc direct current
DC - Direct Current

+

DIRECT

CURRENT

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

ac alternating current
AC - Alternating Current

+

ALTERNATING CURRENT

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

ac and dc13
AC and DC
  • AC is distributed by the power company
  • AC is safer at high voltages
  • DC is produced by a battery
  • DC produces a stronger electromagnetic field
transformers
Transformers
  • Used to reduce voltage
  • Class 2 transformers are power limited
  • Internal fuse or circuit breaker prevent too much current flow
  • Choose between “plug-in” and “wire-in”
  • Specify Voltage and Power, expressed in “VA” volt-amps
power supplies
Power Supplies
  • Convert AC to DC
  • Regulate voltage output
  • Filter noise and ripple
  • Over-current protection
  • Battery charge circuit
batteries
Batteries
  • Sealed, rechargeable battery
  • Rated by volts and “Amp-Hours”
batteries17
Batteries
  • Connect batteries in “parallel” for more amp-hours

Charger

+-

PARALLEL BATTERIES

8 AMP-HOURS

+ -

12VDC

4 AH

Battery

+ -

12VDC

4 AH

Battery

batteries18
Batteries
  • Connect batteries in “series” for higher voltage

Charger

+ -

SERIES BATTERIES

24 VDC

+ -

12VDC

4 AH

Battery

+ -

12VDC

4 AH

Battery

circuits
Circuits
  • Closed Circuit: Current can flow

+

CLOSED

CIRCUIT

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

circuits20
Circuits
  • Open Circuit: Current flow is interrupted

+

OPEN

CIRCUIT

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

circuits21
Circuits
  • Short Circuit: Unintended current path, parallel to load, low ohms / high amps

+

SHORT

CIRCUIT

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

circuits22
Circuits
  • Series Circuit: Two or more loads in series

Load 1

+

SERIES

CIRCUIT

Load 2

Power Supply

-

Switch

circuits23
Circuits
  • Parallel Circuit: Two or more loads in parallel

+

PARALLEL

CIRCUIT

Load 1

Load 2

Power Supply

-

Switch

parallel and series loads
Parallel and Series Loads
  • Two or more loads (or resistors) in series: Add the ohms.

Load 1

+

2 OHMS

SERIES

CIRCUIT

Load 2

Power Supply

4 OHMS

6 OHMS

-

Switch

parallel and series loads25
Parallel and Series Loads
  • Two or more loads (or resistors) in parallel: Add 1/R1 + 1/R2 +1/R3 = 1/Rtotal

+

PARALLEL

CIRCUIT

Load 1

Load 2

Power Supply

1.3 OHMS

2 OHMS

4 OHMS

-

Switch

electrical diagrams
Electrical Diagrams
  • Schematic: Shows interconnection of various components

+

PARALLEL

CIRCUIT

Load 1

Load 2

Power Supply

-

Switch

electrical diagrams27
Electrical Diagrams
  • Riser: Shows wire requirements between components

POWER

SUPPLY

22AWG

6 COND.

SHIELDED

18 AWG

2 COND.

ACCESS

CONTROL

PANEL

CARD

READER

ELECTRIC STRIKE

REMOTE

RELEASE

electrical diagrams28
Electrical Diagrams
  • Elevation: Shows relative placement of components

PIR

INSIDE

OUTSIDE

MAG

CARD READER

REX

42” 42”

voltage variables
Voltage Variables
  • Voltage Drop: Change in voltage caused by resistance of conductor or load
  • Brownout: Voltage reduction caused by demand on the circuit
  • Spikes: Momentary high voltage, often related to lightning
  • Inductive Kickback: Spike caused by collapsing magnetic field
wire and cable
Wire and Cable
  • Solid or Stranded conductor
  • Conductor thickness measured in AWG smaller number = thicker conductor
  • Insulation material determines “general purpose”, “plenum” or “riser” cable
  • Shielded cable protects data from interference
multi meters
Multi-Meters
  • Voltage tested on “live” circuit in parallel with the load

+

VOLTAGE

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

multi meters32
Multi-Meters
  • Amps tested on “live” circuit in series with the load

+

CURRENT

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

multi meters33
Multi-Meters
  • Ohms tested on “dead” circuit in series with the load

Continuity checks for a closed circuit

+

RESISTANCE

Load

Power Supply

-

Switch

switches
Switches
  • Used to open or close a circuit
  • Maintained switches can be toggled from open to closed, etc.
  • Momentary switches return to a “normal” open or closed condition
switches35
Switches
  • SPST = Single pole, single throw
  • SPDT = Single pole, double throw

SPST

SPDT

switches36
Switches
  • DPST = Double pole, single throw
  • DPDT = Double pole, double throw

DPST

DPDT

switches37
Switches
  • Use a double pole exit switch for “Double Break” lock control

Mag

Lock

DOUBLE-

BREAK

R E X

Access

Control

Panel

Power

supply

nc

c

c

nc

switches38
Switches
  • Fail Safe locks require normally closed switches in series

+

Fail

Safe

Power Supply

-

N C Switch

N CSwitch

switches39
Switches
  • Fail Secure locks require normally open switches in parallel

+

Fail

Secure

Power Supply

-

Switch

relays
Relays
  • Relays are electrically operated switches
  • “Form C” relays are SPDT switches
  • “Dry Contact” relays have electrically isolated coil and contacts.
  • Latching relays stay activated until reset
relays41
Relays
  • Relays are used in all access controllers
  • Relays can be radio-controlled
  • Relays are included in passive infrared motion detectors for egress control
  • Relays are built into touch-sensitive exit bars
timers
Timers
  • 7-Day / 24-Hour timers used to schedule door locking/unlocking
  • Delay timers used to keep door unlocked without holding in a switch
  • All access controllers have delay timers
  • Some access controllers have scheduling timers
electro mechanical locks
Electro-Mechanical Locks
  • Solenoid-Operated bolts
  • Cabinet locks
  • Electrified locksets
  • Electric latch retraction panic devices
  • Electric trim for panic devices
  • Strike actuated mortise locks
electro mechanical locks44
Electro-Mechanical Locks
  • Disadvantage: Mechanical wear
  • Disadvantage: Binding under load
  • Disadvantage: Power out to the door
  • Advantage: Mechanical egress
  • Advantage: Hardware compatibility
  • Advantage: Use on fire-labeled doors
electro magnetic locks
Electro-Magnetic Locks

“Mag Locks” use pure magnetism to secure a door or gate

Options include door status and bond sensing circuits

electro magnetic locks46
Electro-Magnetic Locks

Available in 600 to 2000 pound models

electro magnetic locks47
Electro-Magnetic Locks
  • Inswing doors require special hardware
electro magnetic locks48
Electro-Magnetic Locks
  • Shear locks are used for sliding and double-acting doors
  • Movable strike plate interlocks with magnet surface
electro magnetic locks49
Electro-Magnetic Locks
  • Disadvantage: Switch required to exit
  • Disadvantage: Aesthetically unattractive
  • Advantage: Easy to install
  • Advantage: Low power requirement
  • Advantage: Inherently Fail Safe
  • Advantage: Excellent physical security
electric strikes
Electric Strikes
  • Companion to mechanical lock
  • Available Fail Secure or Fail Safe
  • Disadvantage: Lower physical security
  • Disadvantage: Difficult to install
  • Advantage: Mechanical egress
  • Advantage: Aesthetically neutral
  • Advantage: Retain mechanical key
electric strikes51
Electric Strikes
  • “UnLatch” works differently than conventional strikes
  • No cutting of frame face required
  • Models for cylindrical and mortise locks
electric strikes mechanical
Electric Strikes - Mechanical
  • Type of jamb: hollow metal, wood, aluminum,determines faceplate size and shape
  • Cylindrical Lock
  • Mortise Lock
  • Exit Device
electric strikes electrical
Electric Strikes - Electrical
  • Voltage – usually 12 or 24 volts
  • AC or DC – AC buzzes, DC silent
  • Continuous or Intermittent Duty
  • Fail Secure or Fail Safe
  • Current requirements
putting it together
Putting It Together
  • Select electric locking device
  • Select Access Control system
  • Determine means of egress
  • Plan additional switches, relays and timers
  • Select appropriate power source
benefits of electronic locking systems
Benefits Of Electronic Locking Systems
  • Keyless Entry
  • Timed Locking/Unlocking
  • Remote Unlocking
  • Delayed Egress
  • Easy Adds & Deletes
  • Audit Trail
  • Times Zones
design your system
Design Your System
  • Access Technology.
  • Hardwired or Wireless?
  • Audit Trail?
  • Time Restrictions?
  • Remote Monitoring?
  • Programming options.
access technology
Access Technology
  • Something You Know: Personal Identification Number.
  • Something You Have: Cards, Keys, Memory Chips.
  • Something About You: Biometrics.
card technologies
Card Technologies
  • Bar Code
  • Hollerith
  • Magnetic Stripe
  • Wiegand
  • Barium Ferrite
  • Infrared
card technologies59
Card Technologies
  • Proximity
  • Smart Card
  • Dallas Semiconductor i-Button
  • Data Chip Keys
generic features
Generic Features
  • Lock Release
  • Memory – Cardholders
  • Memory – Events
  • Alarm Shunt
  • Request-To-Exit
generic features61
Generic Features
  • Anti-Passback
  • Anti-Tailgating
  • Communications
  • Badging
  • Integration
access control pyramid
Access Control Pyramid
  • Easy Adds and Deletes
  • Audit Trail
  • Time Zones
  • Integrated Systems