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Growing Grapes and their uses Rachel Peterson. Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002. Introduction.

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Growing grapes and their uses rachel peterson
Growing Grapes and their usesRachel Peterson

Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office

June 2002


Introduction
Introduction

Grapes are the most common fruit and are also the oldest cultivated plant throughout the world. This presentation will define the grape and inform you on the general information, nutritional facts, and the many varieties of grapes. If your pondering growing grapes here, in Wisconsin, there is helpful information on how to do it and problems that may occur. I explain the parts of the plant, site selection, planting, pruning, harvesting and picking, and diseases. Let’s start out by asking, “What is a grape?”


Definition
Definition…

  • Grape (grap),n. derived from an Old French word "grape," meaning "bunch" or "cluster"; also a kind of hook used to harvest grapes. Compare to the English word "grapple."


General information
General Information

  • Grapes do not continue to ripen after they have been picked.

  • Woody vine

  • Perennial Portions:

    *roots

    *trunk

    *perhaps cordons

  • Compound buds


More general information
More General Information…

  • Grapes are about 80 percent water

  • Grapes also add fiber to the diet.

  • Red grapes are rich in quercetin, a newly discovered anticancer agent that the University of California tab studies have shown can suppress malignant cells before they form tumors.

  • The mineral "boron" (found in apples, grapes, grape juice and raisins) may retard bone loss in women after menopause. Also, boron helps women on ERT (estrogen replacement therapy) keep the estrogen in their blood longer.


Nutritional facts
Nutritional Facts

  • serving size 1 1/2 cups (138g/14.9oz)

  • Amounts Per Serving % Daily Value*

  • Calories 90

  • Calories from Fat 10

  • Total Fat og

  • Sodium 0mg 0%

  • Potassium 270mg 8%

  • Total Carbohydrate 24g 8%

  • Dietary Fiber 1g 2%

  • Sugars 23g

  • Protein 1g

  • Vitamin A 2%

  • Vitamin C 25%

  • Calcium 2%

  • Iron 2%


Varieties of grapes
Varieties of Grapes

  • Grapescome in three basic colors: green (sometimes called white), red and blue-black.

  • More than 50 kinds of grapes are currently in production.

  • Each variety has its own distinct color, taste, texture and history.  


Varieties of grapes1
Varieties of Grapes

  • PerletteThe first grape of the season, the Perlette is light in color - almost frosty green with a translucent cast; the berries are almost round. Perlette means "little pearl" in French.


Varieties of grapes2
Varieties of Grapes

  • SugraoneThe Sugraone berry is bright green and elongated. The fruit offers a light, sweet flavor and a distinctive crunch.


Varieties of grapes3
Varieties of Grapes

  • Thompson SeedlessAlmost everyone is familiar with this grape's light green color, oblong berries, and sweet, juicy flavor. The variety may have originated in southern Iran.


Varieties of grapes4
Varieties of Grapes

  • Calmeria This grape carries the nickname "lady fingers," so called for its elongated, light-green and delicately sculpted berries. A winter treat, this seeded grape has a mild, sweet flavor with an unforgettable tang.


Varieties of grapes5
Varieties of Grapes

  • Flame SeedlessThe result of a cross between Thompson Seedless, Cardinal and several other varieties, the Flame Seedless is a round, crunchy, sweet grape with a deep-red color.


Varieties of grapes6
Varieties of Grapes

  • Red GlobeThe large, remarkable clusters of the Red Globe contain plum-size seeded berries. The Red Globe is popular for both eating and decorating during the holiday season.


Varieties of grapes7
Varieties of Grapes

  • Ruby SeedlessGrown commercially in the San Joaquin Valley (California) since 1968, the Ruby Seedless is a deep-red, tender-skinned grape.


Varieties of grapes8
Varieties of Grapes

  • EmperorLarge, deep-red clusters and a lasting flavor characterize this seeded variety that was first planted in California in 1863.


Varieties of grapes9
Varieties of Grapes

  • Beauty SeedlessOriginating in Davis, California, this firm, bluish-black grape has a spicy taste and a tender flesh. Beauty Seedless ripens very early and shows a distinctive blue-green foilage. 


Varieties of grapes10
Varieties of Grapes

  • ExoticBorn in 1947 in Fresno, California, Exotic's berries are plump and juicy and grow in long, beautiful clusters. A cross between the red Flame Tokay and the Ribier, this seeded grape is crisp and mild in flavor.


Varieties of grapes11
Varieties of Grapes

  • RibierThis dark blue-black seeded grape crossed the Channel from Orleans, France, in 1860. The skins are firm and the taste is mild.


Varieties of grapes12
Varieties of Grapes

  • Fantasy SeedlessThese blue-black sweet berries are oval, thin-skinned and firm. Fantasy's conical clusters have medium-sized berries with pale green flesh and a mellow flavor.


Varieties of grapes13
Varieties of Grapes

  • Marroo SeedlessOriginating in Australia, the Marroo Seedless is a cross between the Carolina Blackrose and the Ruby Seedless. Bluish-black in color, the medium-large berries are firm and juicy with a mellow flavor. 


Varieties of grapes14
Varieties of Grapes

  • NiabellThis Concord-type variety features thick-skinned, round berries ranging in color from purple to black with an earthy, rich flavor.


Growing grapes in wisconsin

Growing GrapesIn Wisconsin



Site selection and preparation
Site Selection and Preparation

  • Grapes require full sunlight.

  • Adequate drainage and moisture retention, required.

  • The best soils are loams or sandy loams with added organic matter.

  • Grapes grow best in soil with a pH range of 5.5 to 6.5.

  • Rows should usually run north to south. This allows the plants gather the most sunlight and less wind damage will occur.


Planting
Planting

  • Plant your vines in early spring (as early as you can work the soil).

  • Grapes do not like weeds so till the soil well to get rid of competing weeds and grasses. Dig a nice big hole so the roots can spread out.

  • Plant in Spring or Summer.

  • Grapes need the summer heat to develop and will produce the best grapes late in the season.


Planting continued
Planting, continued…

  • If possible arrange the rows in a North-South orientation to allow maximum exposure to the sun.

  • For backyard plantings, nine feet between rows is suitable.

  • For larger plantings, ten feet is suitable.

  • Water newly planted vines every day.

  • Plant in straight rows for easier managability, and to reduce trellis costs.

  • Spread the roots out when you plant, giving them room.

  • Once you plant the grape, prune it back to 3 buds


Pruning
Pruning

Before pruning, an average grapevine may have 200 to 300 buds which are capable of producing fruit. If the vine is left unpruned, the number of grape clusters would be excessive. The vine would be unable to ripen the large crop or sustain adequate vegetative growth. The purpose of pruning is to grow yields of high quality grapes and to allow better growth for the following season.


  • 1) After pruning the first winter. The single cane is cut back and tied to the lower wire.

  • (2) After pruning the second winter. Two new canes of four or five buds each are tied on the bottom wire. A third new cane is tied up to the top wire and cut off.

  • (3) After pruning the third winter. Three of the arms (A) and the fruiting canes (B) have been formed. A cane (C) with four or five buds is left to establish the fourth arm.

  • (4) A fully formed vine after pruning the fourth winter. The arms (A) should be shorter than those shown. The vine consists of a single permanent trunk (T), four semi permanent fruiting arms (A), four annual fruiting canes (F), and four renewal spurs (S), with two buds on each.


Harvesting and picking
Harvesting and Picking back and tied to the lower wire.

  • After 3 or 4 years each vine will produce 12-15 pounds of grapes (about 45 bunches).

  • Wait until they separate easy from the seeds to pick.

  • Pick on a dry day, wet grapes spoil quickly.


Diseases
Diseases back and tied to the lower wire.

Like people, plants can catch, spread and suffer from various diseases also.

Here is some information on certain diseases along with some solutions and cures.


Rootworm damage to grape roots
Rootworm Damage to Grape Roots back and tied to the lower wire.

  • Species of a leaf beetle

  • Seriously damages commercial vineyards

  • Larvae~ (according to the Webster dictionary) is the immature, wingless, and often wormlike feeding form that hatches from the egg of many insects, alters chiefly in size while passing through several molts, and is finally transformed into a pupa or chrysalis from which the adult emerges


Rootworm continued
Rootworm, continued… back and tied to the lower wire.

  • Produces only one generation a year

  • Begins as an egg which is deposited under the bark of grape vines, by the adult female

  • It will spend nine to ten months in the immature larvae stage in the soil feeding on roots

  • As an adult, it feeds on grape foliage

  • An insecticide can get rid of these pests.


Black rot
Black Rot back and tied to the lower wire.

  • Rots fruit/turns it black.

  • Leaves covered with spots.

  • Use a fungicide.


Phylloxera
Phylloxera back and tied to the lower wire.

  • Phylloxera is a yellow aphid (type of insect), which feeds on vine roots and leaves.The feeding causes galls to form on the developing leaves or roots. The aphids live on the surface of root galls and inside the leaf galls.

  • There is no known cure for phylloxera.


Conclusion
Conclusion back and tied to the lower wire.

You are what you eat. If that’s true, I’m a big ass perlette grape!

Hope you didn’t get too bored with this LONG, but informative, PowerPoint presentation…


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