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Maps and their Uses

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  1. Maps and their Uses Exploring Past Localities 11/02/2008 Richard Haddlesey

  2. Lecture plan • Why use maps? What are their uses? • Purpose of Maps • Important periods when town plans were produced • Uses and Caveats • Types of Maps

  3. Why use Maps and Plans? • Get basic idea of where a place is! • A series of maps can show change • Walls added or demolished • Street numbering? • Subtle changes (e.g. pub names, use) • Clustering (building types, dates, ownership –etc) • Uses (barn conversion, house/shop) • Caveats • Accuracy decreases the further back in time the map was produced • May represent original ideas rather than finished buildings • Must remember original use of specific map or plan

  4. Early Hampshire and Winchester maps (late 16th/ early 17thCs) • Saxton, Norton, Drayton, Ogilby • John Speed’s Map of 1616 • William Godson’s Map of 1750 • Cole’s Map of 1805 • Gale’s Map of 1836

  5. Types of maps • Terriers • Thematic Maps • ‘Invented’ Maps • Leasehold Maps • Sales Particulars • Architects/Building Control Plans (planning permission) • Deposited Plans of railways (not illustrated) • Digital Mapping (GIS, GPS, LiDAR) • Environment Agency / Utilities

  6. Purpose of maps:contextGeoffrey of Monmouthc.1400

  7. Early Hampshire Map:Christopher Saxton (1543-c.1610) 1575

  8. John Norden (born c.1540) 1607 1595

  9. John Speed • Possibly most famous of all English map-makers. • Author of most important, and prestigious atlas of his day • Best known for the Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine • Also produced the first map of Winchester (although not to scale)

  10. John Speed (1552-1629)

  11. Speed’s Winchester, c. 1611

  12. Michael Drayton, 1613

  13. John Ogilby 1675

  14. Kitchen 1751

  15. Pre-Ordnance Survey maps • Many other early maps of Hampshire • Michael Drayton, 1613 • Blaeu 1645 • Jansson 1646 • Blome 1673 • Ogilby 1675 • Morden 1695 • Kitchin 1751 • Harrison 1788

  16. Street plan Siting of town walls Town gates Siting of then extant churches & buildings Extent of suburban development MAP REGRESSION Certain features may be exaggerated Amount of open space often reduced to make way for enlarged depiction of buildings No. of houses lining streets rarely accurate DON’T expect to be able to locate your property on Speed’s map of Winchester! Sometimes inaccurate depiction of buildings & spelling of street names Uses and Caveats

  17. Godson’s Map of Winchester, 1750

  18. Eastgate HouseWinchesterc.1748

  19. Milne 1791

  20. Cole’s Map of Winchester,1805

  21. OS map 1810

  22. Greenwood 1826

  23. Medecroft 1846 1948 1949 1943 1949 1949 1943 1949

  24. A Winchester Terrier

  25. Thematic Maps http://landuse.edina.ac.uk/

  26. Using map layers

  27. aiding landscape perceptions (Chapman, 2006)

  28. 1872-4 OS Map

  29. 1910

  30. The Hampshire Record Office holds reproductions of the first edition 1 inch OS maps for Hampshire (1810-17) in The Old Series Ordnance Survey Maps of England and Wales vol. III : South Central England (Harry Margary, 1981) • It also holds maps at the large scale of 50 inches to the mile, including a full set of Winchester, c1870

  31. Keene’s Medieval Work: Regression

  32. Leasehold Property Map

  33. Sales Particulars Map

  34. Other useful maps/ plans are listed at: http://www.hants.gov.uk/record-office/maps/building.html East elevation of the Corn Exchange, Winchester, drawn by Owen B Carter, 1836 W/J2/12

  35. Some Winchester work to look at • All doctoral theses: • Winchester houses and people c.1650-c.1710 : a study based on probate inventory evidence by Michael May (1998) • A railway revolution? : a census-based analysis of the economic, social and topographical effects of the coming of the railway upon the city of Winchester c.1830-c.1890 by Mark Allen (1999) • An urban study of central Winchester applying GIS methodology to twentieth century directory and complementary sources by Craig Pinhorne (2001) • Aspects of the development of Winchester's High Street 1550-2000, with special reference to the period since 1750, by Justine Cooper (2001)

  36. A task • Look at the maps I’ve brought in • I want you to do some map regression on the site of the WORKHOUSE • What was there originally? • When did the workhouse first appear? • What changes over time? • What do the maps tell us before we start looking at documentary sources?

  37. Useful websites • http://edina.ac.uk/maps/ (Largest collection of geo-referenced maps (via HE subscription)) • http://website.lineone.net/~hantshistory/maps.html (Hampshire Family History: Maps) • http://www.geog.port.ac.uk/webmap/hantsmap/hantsmap/hantsmap.htm (Old Hampshire Mapped) • www.old-maps.co.uk (1872-4 OS Map of Winchester – search & follow the links)