Chapter 5 Network Layer. CIS 81 Networking Fundamentals Rick Graziani Cabrillo College email@example.com Last Updated: 3/9/2008. This Presentation.
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Chapter 5Network Layer CIS 81 Networking Fundamentals Rick Graziani Cabrillo College firstname.lastname@example.org Last Updated: 3/9/2008
This Presentation • For a copy of this presentation and access to my web site for other CCNA, CCNP, and Wireless resources please email me for a username and password. • Email: email@example.com • Web Site: www.cabrillo.edu/~rgraziani
Note • This presentation is not in the order of the book or online curriculum. • This presentation also contains information beyond the curriculum.
Network Layer • IPv4
IP Header Application Header + data
IP IP IP IP
Focus on Transport Layer IP IP
Network Layer • The Network layer (Layer 3) provides services to exchange the data over the network between identified end devices. • Layer 3 uses four basic processes: • Addressing • Encapsulation • Routing • Decapsulation
Addressing 172.16.3.10 192.168.100.99 Source IP = 192.168.100.99 Destination IP = 172.16.3.10 Source IP = 172.16.3.10 Destination IP = 192.168.100.99 • Source IP Address • Destination IP Address • More later!
Encapsulation and Decapsulation Data Link Trailer Data Link Header IP Header TCP Header HTTP Header Data Data Link Trailer Data Link Trailer Data Link Header Data Link Header IP Packet IP Packet Data Link Trailer Data Link Trailer Data Link Header Data Link Header IP Packet IP Packet Data Link Trailer Data Link Trailer Data Link Header Data Link Header IP Packet IP Packet Data Link Trailer Data Link Header IP Header TCP Header HTTP Header Data
Application Header + data Decapsulation • When the packet arrives at the destination host and is processed at Layer 3. • The host examines the destination address to verify that the packet was addressed to this device. • If the address is correct, the packet is decapsulated by the Network layer and the Layer 4 PDU contained in the packet is passed up to the appropriate service at Transport layer.
Routing Source IP = 192.168.100.99 Destination IP = 172.16.3.10 172.16.3.10 192.168.100.99 • Routers examine Layer 3 Destination IP addresses to forward packets. • Search their routing tables for a match with a network address. • Send the packet on to the next-hop router. • Last router in path forwards the router to the host matching the Destination IP address of the packet.
Network Layer Protocols • The Internet Protocol (IPv4 and IPv6) is the most widely-used Layer 3 data carrying protocol and will be the focus of this course.
Connectionless • IP packets are sent without notifying the end host that they are coming. • TCP: A connection-oriented protocol does requires a connection to be established prior to sending TCP segments. • UDP: A connectionless protocol does not require a session to be established.
Best Effort Service (unreliable) • The mission of Layer 3 is to transport the packets between the hosts while placing as little burden on the network as possible. • Speed over reliability • Layer 3 is not concerned with or even aware of the type of data contained inside of a packet. • This responsibility is the role of the upper layers as required. • Unreliable: IP does not have the capability or responsibility to manage, and recover from, undelivered or corrupt packets. • TCP’s responsibility at the end-to-end hosts
Media Independent • Responsibility of the OSI Data Link layer to take an IP packet and prepare it for transmission over the communications medium. • Transport of IP packets is not limited to any particular medium. • In some cases a router will need to split up a packet when forwarding it from one media to a media with a smaller MTU. • fragmenting the packet or fragmentation.
TCP MSS defines the maximum size of the data in the TCP segment. 20 octets 20 octets 1460 octets Ethernet MTU defines the maximum size of the data in the Ethernet frame. TCP MSS = 1460 Data = 1460 octets The host using Ethernet, MTU of 1500 octets so I will set my MSS to 1460. 1500 octets Determining TCP MTU • Typically, an end system uses the "outgoing interface MTU" minus 40 as its reported MSS. • For example, an TCP over IP over Ethernet MSS value is 1460 (1500 - 40 = 1460). • When a host (usually a PC) initiates a TCP session with a server, it negotiates the TCP segment size by using the maximum segment size (MSS) option field in the TCP SYN packet. (curriculum say IP segment). • The value of the MSS field is determined by the maximum transmission unit (MTU) configuration on the host. • The default Ethernet MTU value for a PC is 1500 bytes. (curriculum says MSS)
IP Header • IP Destination Address • 32-bit binary value that represents the packet destination Network layer host address. • IP Source Address • 32-bit binary value that represents the packet source Network layer host address.
IP’s TTL – Time To Live field • When a packet is first generated a value is entered into the TTL field. • Originally, the TTL field was the number of seconds, but this was difficult to implement and rarely supported. • Now, the TTL is now set to a specific value which is then decremented by each router.
IP’s TTL – Time To Live field Decrement by 1, if 0 drop the packet. • If the router decrements the TTL field to 0, it will then drop the packet (unless the packet is destined specifically for the router, I.e. ping, telnet, etc.). • Common operating system TTL values are: • UNIX: 255 • Linux: 64 or 255 depending upon vendor and version • Microsoft Windows 95: 32 • Other Microsoft Windows operating systems: 128
Assigned Numbers (RFC 1700, J. Reynolds, J. Postel, October 1994): • IP TIME TO LIVE PARAMETER • The current recommended default time to live (TTL) for the Internet Protocol (IP) is 64. http://www.switch.ch/docs/ttl_default.html TTL Overview - Disclaimer: The following list is a best effort overview of some widely used TCP/IP stacks. The information was provided by vendors and many helpful system administrators. We would like to thank all these contributors for their precious help ! SWITCH cannot, however, take any responsibility that the provided information is correct. Furthermore, SWITCH cannot be made liable for any damage that may arise by the use of this information. +-------------------------------+-------+---------+---------+ | OS Version |"safe" | tcp_ttl | udp_ttl | +-------------------------------+-------+---------+---------+ AIX n 60 30 DEC Pathworks V5 n 30 30 FreeBSD 2.1R y 64 64 HP/UX 9.0x n 30 30 HP/UX 10.01 y 64 64 Irix 5.3 y 60 60 Irix 6.x y 60 60 Linux y 64 64 MacOS/MacTCP 2.0.x y 60 60 OS/2 TCP/IP 3.0 y 64 64 OSF/1 V3.2A n 60 30 Solaris 2.x y 255 255 SunOS 4.1.3/4.1.4 y 60 60 Ultrix V4.1/V4.2A n 60 30 VMS/Multinet y 64 64 VMS/TCPware y 60 64 VMS/Wollongong 126.96.36.199 n 128 30 VMS/UCX (latest rel.) y 128 128 MS WfW n 32 32 MS Windows 95 n 32 32 MS Windows NT 3.51 n 32 32 MS Windows NT 4.0 y 128 128 Safe: TCP and UDP initial TTL values should be set to a "safe" value of at least 60 today.
IP’s TTL – Time To Live field Decrement by 1, if 0 drop the packet. • The idea behind the TTL field is that IP packets can not travel around the Internet forever, from router to router. • Eventually, the packet’s TTL which reach 0 and be dropped by the router, even if there is a routing loop somewhere in the network.
IP’s Protocol Field • Protocol field enables the Network layer to pass the data to the appropriate upper-layer protocol. • Example values are: • 01 ICMP • 06 TCP • 17 UDP
IP’s ToS Field • Type-of-Service is used to determine the priority of each packet. • Enables Quality-of-Service (QoS) mechanism for high priority traffic such as; • VoIP • Streaming video • For ToS to be used: • Hosts set ToS field (can be an intermediary device such as a switch) • Routersmust be configured to examine ToS
IP Fragmentation Original IP Packet IP Data = 1480 bytes IP Header = 20 bytes IP Data = 500 IP Packet Fragments IP Data = 500 IP Data = 480 L2 Data = 500 L2 • A router may have to fragment a packet when forwarding it from one medium to another medium that has a smaller MTU. • If Don’t Fragment flag set, it will not fragment packet, but discard it. • Fragment Offset field and More Fragments flag is used to reconstruct the packet at the destination host.
IP Fragmentation IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet Network link with larger MTU Network link with smaller MTU Network link with larger MTU IP Packet IP Packet • When fragmentation occurs, it does not get reconstructed until it reaches the host. • This takes processing time. • Fragment Offset field identifies the order IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet IP Packet
Path MTU Discovery Path MTU Discovery (Not discussed here, but is important) • RFC 1191 (RFC1191) • Path MTU Discovery and Filtering ICMPMarc Slemko • Link on CIS 81 web page
Other IPv4 fields • Version - Contains the IP version number (4) • Header Length (IHL) - Specifies the size of the packet header. • Packet Length - This field gives the entire packet size, including header and data, in bytes. • Identification - This field is primarily used for uniquely identifying fragments of an original IP packet • Header Checksum - The checksum field is used for error checking the packet header. • Options - There is provision for additional fields in the IPv4 header to provide other services but these are rarely used.
IP Addresses – First look Kiwi Airliners - Network Address 172.16.0.0/16 172.16.40.123/16 172.16.10.100/16 172.16.20.77/16 172.16.30.39/16 172.16.20.96/16 172.16.40.51/16 172.16.10.55/16 172.16.30.10/16 172.16.1.1/16 172.16.10.3/16 172.16.40.29/16 172.16.20.103/16 172.16.30.111/16 • Host IP addresses are IP addresses assigned to end devices such as: • Client computers • Server computers • Printers • Router interfaces • Note: the /16 refers to the subnet mask, which will be discussed later. • Note: Intermediary devices such as a switch may have an IP address to allow the network administrator to Telnet to the device for remote management.
IP Addresses – First look Kiwi Airliners - Network Address 172.16.0.0/16 172.16.40.123/16 172.16.10.100/16 172.16.20.77/16 172.16.30.39/16 172.16.20.96/16 172.16.40.51/16 172.16.10.55/16 172.16.30.10/16 172.16.1.1/16 172.16.10.3/16 172.16.40.29/16 172.16.20.103/16 172.16.30.111/16 • Host IP addresses are members of a group of addresses call the Network Address • IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) have the responsibility to allocate network addresses. • A company or individual needing a network addresses typically goes to their ISP • ISPs then allocate network addresses to their customers. • More detail in the next chapter.
IP Addresses – First look Network Address 172.16.0.0 172.16.10.100/16 Network Address 192.168.1.0/30 172.16.10.55/16 ISP Internet 192.168.1.2/30 172.16.1.1/16 192.168.1.1/30 172.16.10.3/16 • Default Gateway • A router which is used to forward packets out of the network. • This is a host IP address on the router. • The default gateway IP address is typically a host IP address which is on the same network as the host itself. • The host only has to be aware of: • Its own network address • Default gateway IP address to reach all devices outside its own network
IP Addresses – First look Network Address 172.16.0.0 172.16.10.100/16 Gateway: 172.16.1.1 Network Address 192.168.1.0/30 172.16.10.55/16 ISP Gateway: 172.16.1.1 Internet 192.168.1.2/30 172.16.1.1/16 192.168.1.1/30 172.16.10.3/16 Gateway: 172.16.1.1 • All hosts in the same network will typically have the same default gateway IP address.
Confirming IP Address, Default Gateway Root# ifconfig eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0F:20:CF:8B:42 inet addr:172.16.1.100 Bcast:172.16.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:2472694671 errors:1 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:44641779 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:1761467179 (1679.8 Mb) TX bytes:2870928587 (2737.9 Mb) Interrupt:28 C:\> ipconfig Windows IP Configuration Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.10.100 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.1.1 Linux: netstat –rn for default gateway information.
Subnets Kiwi Airliners - Network Address 172.16.0.0/16 172.16.10.0/24 172.16.20.0/24 172.16.30.0/24 172.16.40.0/24 172.16.40.123/24 172.16.10.100/24 172.16.30.39/24 172.16.20.77/24 172.16.20.96/24 172.16.40.51/24 172.16.10.55/24 172.16.30.10/24 172.16.1.1/24 172.16.10.3/24 172.16.40.29/24 172.16.20.103/24 172.16.30.111/24 • Networks can be subdivided into subnets. • This provides for several benefits which we will discuss later. • Networks can be grouped based on factors that include: • Geographic location, Purpose, Ownership 172.16.10.1/24 172.16.20.1/24 172.16.30.1/24 172.16.40.1/24
Routing – First Look Network 192.168.1.0/24 Network 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.1.254/24 • Routers know about: • Directly connected networks (C): • Network addresses of its interfaces • Remote networks • Static routes • Dynamic Routing Protocol (R = RIP) C 192.168.2.0/24 is direction connected, FastEthernet0/1
Routing – First Look Network 192.168.1.0/24 Network 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.1.254/24 • Routers know about: • Directly connected networks (C): • Network addresses of its interfaces • When a router is configured with the IP address/mask on an interface the router knows that it has an interface which is part of that network. • This is just like a host that is configured with an IP address/mask. (coming) C 192.168.2.0/24 is direction connected, FastEthernet0/1
Routing – First Look Network 192.168.1.0/24 Network 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.1.254/24 • Routers learn about remote networks using: • Static routes • Dynamic Routing Protocol (R = RIP) • Routes in a routing table have three main features: • Destination network • Next-hop • Metric C 192.168.2.0/24 is direction connected, FastEthernet0/1
Routing – First Look Network 192.168.1.0/24 Network 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.1.254/24 • Static routes • Manually entered by the administrator • Dynamic Routing protocols • Routers automatically learn about remote networks • Ex: RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP C 192.168.2.0/24 is direction connected, FastEthernet0/1
Host Routing Table netstat –r or route print • Hosts also have a local routing table. • Usually only contains: • Its own network address (directly connected network) • Default gateway IP address • Hosts usually do not have remote networks in their routing tables
Chapter 5Network Layer CIS 81 Networking Fundamentals Rick Graziani Cabrillo College firstname.lastname@example.org Last Updated: 3/9/2008