Lecture 1: What is a worldview?. Welcome to Philosophy. What is a worldview?. Everyone possesses a worldview. A worldview is the “sum-total” of one’s fundamental assumptions about God, reality, truth, knowledge, humanity, ethics, and evil.
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1. Presuppositions: fixed biases that do not change unless they are placed under extreme duress.
2. Pre-understandings: moldable influences that come and go.
3. Faculties of the mind. Is your mind “working properly?”
1. Reason alone to the exclusion of faith.
2. Faith alone to the exclusion of reason.
Consider these questions asked by thinking people:
Can we trust our senses?
What are the proper roles of reason and sense experience in knowledge?
Are our intuitions more dependable than our perceptions?
What is the relationship between faith and reason?
Is knowledge about God possible? If so, how?
Should we appeal to “mystical downloads” for spiritual knowledge?
1. Life is intrinsically valuable.
2. Quality of life vs. inherent dignity of life.
A. Virtue Ethics: An action is right if and only if it is what the virtuous person would do.
B. Deontological Ethics: An action is right if and only if it is in accord with a moral principle or command.
C. Consequential Ethics: An action is right if and only if it promotes the best consequences.
D. Situational Ethics: majority or elite determines what is right or wrong.
E. Situational Contract Ethics: two parties agree what is right from wrong.
F. Reflective Equilibrium: we use our intuitions to formulate principles to live by and formulate principles from our situational setting. Then, these two levels engage each other (i.e., reflect or feedback) to sharpen, refine, or even change our justifications for moral choices as time and culture changes and more information is added.
1. Inherent evil with the tendency to sin.
2. Evil is simply making a wrong choice (we are innately neutral or good, not evil.).
3. Evil is illusionary.
Consider these questions by thinking people?
a. Why do good people do bad things?
b. What is evil?
c. What is good?
d. Why do good people suffer?
e. What is good vs. evil?
a. What are we? Where do we come from?
b. What has gone wrong with the world?
c. What can we do to fix it? [redemption].
Or we can ask these questions:
a. What is real?
b. What are the nature and limits of knowledge?
c. Who is well-off? What is the good life?
d. Who is a really good person?
e. How does one become a really good person?