pregnancy l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PREGNANCY PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
PREGNANCY

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

PREGNANCY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1121 Views
  • Uploaded on

PREGNANCY. Conception: Three trimesters = nine months = prenatal period Healthy vs. at risk pregnancies Importance of intrauterine environment. Stages of Childbirth Normal vs. complicated childbirth, mismanagement. Perinatal period: from beginning of labour to 72 hrs. postpartum

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'PREGNANCY' - Michelle


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
pregnancy
PREGNANCY

Conception:

  • Three trimesters = nine months = prenatal period
    • Healthy vs. at risk pregnancies
    • Importance of intrauterine environment
slide2
Stages of Childbirth
  • Normal vs. complicated childbirth, mismanagement.
  • Perinatal period:
    • from beginning of labour to 72 hrs. postpartum
  • Breastfeeding:
    • advantages for infant
pregnancy3
PREGNANCY
  • Conception:
    • Necessary:
      • sperm count
      • vaginal mucus
      • open Fallopian tubes
      • normal ovulation
      • normal hormonal levels
pregnancy4
PREGNANCY
  • 23rd pair of chromosomes: sex chromosomes
  • Male sperm smaller and faster
  • Vaginal pH (acid, neutral or alkaline)
  • Ovulatory mucus (vaginal) mid-cycle provides
    • right pH
    • sugars (nutrients)
    • conveyor
pregnancy5
PREGNANCY
  • Only a few hundred sperm arrive where egg is, in the Fallopian tube, and surround ovum.
  • Only one (usually) penetrates ovum
  • Stages of uterine development:
    • zygote:
      • 1-14 days
    • embryo:
      • 3-8 weeks
    • fetus:
      • 9-40 weeks
pregnancy6
PREGNANCY
  • Natural method of conception can fail
  • Most common reason:
    • STDs in both men and women, which lead to infertility (e.g. blocked Fallopian tubes or vas deferens)
  • Reproductive technology can help infertile couples
  • Most recent dramatic technology:
    • cloning
pregnancy7
PREGNANCY
  • More Established Reproductive Technologies:
    • Artificial Insemination:
      • Introducing sperm into woman’s vagina or uterus by artificial means
        • single woman
        • husband low sperm count
        • husband dead
        • husband infertile: donor sperm
pregnancy8
PREGNANCY
  • More Established Reproductive Technologies (Cont’d):
    • IVF: in vitro fertilization:
      • test tube or Petri dish is used to mix gametes; once dividing, surgically implanted into woman’s uterus
        • can use both parents’ gametes
        • one parent plus donor’s
        • can be implanted in surrogate’s uterus (“rent-a-womb”)
pregnancy9
PREGNANCY
  • Testing the Conceptus for Abnormalities:
    • amniocentesis (11-14 weeks)
    • CVS: chorionic villus sampling (villi) (6-8 weeks)
      • ultrasound (12-16 weeks)
      • fetoscopy
      • blood test
pregnancy10
PREGNANCY
  • Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy:
    • Woman:
      • 1st trimester:
        • enlarged, tender breasts
        • amenorrhea
        • nausea (⅓ severe,⅓ mild, ⅓ none)
        • sleepiness (⅔)
        • aversion to some foods, odors
        • increased urinary frequency (hormonal)
        • mixed emotions, ambivalence, anxiety and exhilaration
pregnancy11
PREGNANCY
  • Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • Woman:
      • 2nd trimester:
        • “quickening”
        • increased girth
        • well-being
        • mostly positive outlook, energy
        • preparatory behaviors, prenatal classes
        • some who rejected pregnancy accept it
pregnancy12
PREGNANCY
  • Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • Woman:
      • 3rd trimester:
        • large abdomen, awkward
        • lost sleep due to:
          • frequent urination (weight of uterus on bladder)
          • difficulty turning over in bed
          • activity of fetus
        • anxiety increases (delivery, birth defects)
        • differences between fit and unfit women
pregnancy13
PREGNANCY
  • Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • Woman:
      • 3rd trimester (Cont’d):
        • possible pregnancy complications:
          • edema
          • proteinuria
          • hypertension
          • diabetes
          • threatened early labor, etc.
        • moodiness, irritability, tiredness
        • not universal
pregnancy14
PREGNANCY
  • Physical and Psychological Changes during Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • Man:
      • economic worries
      • feeling left out
      • “couvade”:
        • actual changes in hormonal levels
        • before birth more prolactin and cortisol
        • after birth, less testosterone
        • related to paternal role
pregnancy15
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS:
    • anything that causes birth defects (teratos = monster)
    • Critical vs. sensitive periods
    • Maternal Diseases:
      • Rubella
      • Toxoplasmosis (cat’s feces, raw meat)
      • CMV
      • AIDS
pregnancy16
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Radiation
    • Chemicals:
      • absorbed through lungs or skin
    • High Temperature:
      • hot bath
    • General Environmental Pollution:
      • what we eat, drink, breathe, touch
pregnancy17
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Drugs:
      • prescription, e.g. DES, thalidomide
      • OTC
      • “recreational”, illegal
      • caffeine
      • aspirin, etc.
pregnancy18
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Smoking:
      • nicotine
        • CO:
          • 200 times more affinity to Hgb than oxygen
      • oxygen supply compromised (5% less)
      • decreases sperm motility:
        • lower fertility
      • less progesterone:
        • miscarriages
      • placental problems
      • higher morbidity and mortality
        • from 9/1000 to 33/1000
      • higher rates of cleft palate and hare lip
pregnancy19
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Alcohol:
      • FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder)
        • brain abnormalities:
          • learning difficulties
          • ADDH
          • mental retardation, etc.
        • possible damage to eyes, ears, immune system, internal organs, joints, limbs
        • low birth weight
        • increased prematurity, miscarriage and stillbirth risk
pregnancy20
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Alcohol:
      • FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder) (Cont’d)
        • growth retardation
        • facial and cranial malformations
        • dose and timing related
        • no safe dose
        • there is no cure for FASD
        • leading cause of preventable mental retardation
pregnancy21
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Dose Related:
    • Interactions: hard to tell main effects
      • Possible effects:
        • miscarriage
        • stillbirth
        • low birth weight
        • irritability, hard to soothe
        • shorter attention span (learning)
        • tremors
        • digestive difficulties
pregnancy22
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Possible effects (cont’d):
      • organ malformation
      • sluggishness
      • future cancers
      • visual impairment
      • skeletal malformation
      • brain development
      • genital abnormalities
      • prematurity
pregnancy23
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Possible effects (cont’d):
      • respiratory difficulties
      • illnesses
      • microcephalia
      • heart defects
      • breach births (more C-sections)
pregnancy24
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
  • THERE ARE NO TOTALLY SAFE DRUGS!
    • Most vulnerable:
      • brain, CNS
        • learning problems
        • ADHD
    • Most common mechanism:
      • oxygen deprivation
pregnancy25
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Maternal stress:
      • acute or chronic (worse)
        • adrenaline, corticosteroids:
          • compromise oxygen supply for infant
      • after birth:
        • digestive problems
        • low birth weight
        • irritability
pregnancy26
PREGNANCY
  • TERATOGENS (Cont’d):
    • Maternal age:
      • no more obstetrical complications (if healthy)
      • increased Down’s syndrome
    • Other effects of these variables:
      • affect maternal-infant interaction
      • abuse
      • neglect
      • rejection
pregnancy27
PREGNANCY
  • Maternal Nutrition:
    • First trimester:
      • usually not an issue – special cases
    • Second trimester:
      • quality
    • Third trimester:
      • quality and quantity
    • Important:
      • Folic acid: prevents neural tube defects (eg. spina bifida)
pregnancy28
PREGNANCY
  • Maternal Nutrition (Cont’d):
    • Infant Optimal Weight:
      • 7½ - 8 lbs. (European stock)
    • Low Birth Weight:
      • 5½ lbs. or 2,500 g
    • Montreal Diet Dispensary, Agnes Higgins:
      • 500 extra daily calories:
        • 1 qt. milk
        • 1 egg
        • 1 orange
pregnancy29
PREGNANCY
  • Prenatal Care Essential:
    • Toxemia:
      • increased blood pressure
      • fluid retention
      • edema
      • can lead to eclampsia (fatal)
    • Gestational Diabetes
pregnancy30
PREGNANCY
  • Sex During Pregnancy
  • Woman’s comfort with own body important:
    • 1st Trimester:
      • tiredness, nausea
    • Male partner:
      • MOTHER image
      • fear of damaging baby
pregnancy31
PREGNANCY
  • Sex During Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • 2nd Trimester:
      • buoyant, well-being, vaginal mucus
    • Individual differences:
      • some women feel sexy, others not
      • about 5th month: belly. Unattractive?
pregnancy32
PREGNANCY
  • Sex During Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • 3rd Trimester:
      • abdomen large, awkward
      • new positions for sex
      • edema, tiredness, lack of sleep, too hot, hard to breathe
pregnancy33
PREGNANCY
  • Sex During Pregnancy (Cont’d):
    • Important:
      • Level of fitness, activity, diet, general health
      • Colostrum: some men uncomfortable
      • Issue of “fatness”
      • Fear of premature labor
      • Some men turned off