CCB-TOX Tutorial Sections 1-3 Technology & EWS Basics. Overall Agenda. Section 1: Company information Section 2: Technology basics Section 3: Early Warning Systems basis Section 4: CCB Overview Section 5: CCB Operations Section 6: CCB Installation Section 7: CCB Maintenance
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Technology & EWS Basics
Section 1: Company Information
Portable Contamination Biomonitors - Test kits (bacteria & reagents) and Luminometers
Continuous Contamination Biomonitors - On-Line monitors (hardware), reagents cartridges, software, accessories & options.
Section 2: Technology Basics
A toxicity test can be considered a bioassay that allows measurement of damage. It is a measure of the degree to which a substance can elicit a deleterious effect (including death) in a given organism.
Immediate or almost immediate adverse health effects from exposure to substance (for water contaminants, usually within a day)
Some toxicity measurements are more applicable than others in assessing the concentration at which a contaminant will have acute or immediate impacts, while others will have more chronic, long-term impacts.
Assessing acute or immediate impacts of contaminant:
Lethal Dose 50 (LD50), Infectious Dose 50 (ID50), or Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50)
No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL)
Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL)
Assessing chronic, or long-term impacts of contaminant:
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG)
Basic tenet of toxicology: “Dosis facit venenum “ - The dose makes the poison(Paracelus)
Protein & lipid synthesis
Section 3: Early Warning Systems Basics
Significantly reduces the threats associated with accidental and intentional chemical contamination of water:
> Ground water infiltration
> Infiltration from the surface
> Injection of contaminants
> Naturally occurring substances
> pathogenic bacteria
> parasites, particularly protozoa and cysts
> algal microtoxins
> volatile organic chemicals (VOCs)
> inorganic chemicals (IOCs)
> synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs)
An effective EWS is an integrated system for deploying the monitoring technology, analyzing and interpreting the results, and utilizing the results to make decisions that protect public health.
An ideal contamination warning system that monitors toxic events in water should have the following features: Rapid results Sensitive Wide detection spectrum Reliable Continuous operations Fit for field testing User-friendly Affordable
Currently, an EWS with all of these features does not exist.
However, there are some technologies that can be used to build an EWS that can meet certain core criteria:
Any monitoring system that does not meet these minimum criteria should not be considered an effective EWS.
There are many issues and water system characteristics that need to be considered when designing an EWS:
The objectives of the program should be defined clearly, and a plan should be developed for the-
> Reporting of monitoring results.
The plan should be developed in coordination with -
> The water utility
> Local and state health departments
> Emergency response units
> Law enforcement agencies
> Local political leadership
The system should be characterized with respect to -
> Access points
> Flow and demand patterns
> Pressure zones
If not already available, a hydraulic model should be constructed.
System vulnerabilities should be identified and characterized, preferably through a formal vulnerability assessment.
Even the most complex array of monitoring equipment cannot detect the entire spectrum of agents that could pose a threat to public health via contaminated water.
Thus, the design of an EWS should focus on contaminants that are thought to pose the most serious threat.
Many factors may go into this assessment, including:
Observed Water Quality Change
(determined by broad-based continuous screening)
Automated Sample Collection
Public Health Regulatory or Remedial Action
A major problem in the development of EWS quality monitoring systems is that there are an almost unlimited number of potential contaminants that could threaten a water asset.
While many products have been developed that monitor for specific contaminants or specific types of contaminants, it is impractical to design a system that can detect every potential threat to water quality.
One approach is to use biological organisms as living "sentinels" that will warn operators of contamination.
Sophisticated continuous and automatic biomonitors are now available that detect and alert whenever a notable change occurs in the behavior of the sensing organisms (such as, bacteria, fish, algae, mussels, daphnia).
Performance of the chosen field deployable monitoring technology must meet the data quality objectives of the monitoring program that were defined during the design of the EWS and include:
> False positives/negatives rates
Adopted in part from: Safeguarding The Security Of Public Water Supplies Using Early Warning Systems: A Brief Review .J Hasan et al. Journal Of Contemporary Water Research And Education Issue 129, Pages 27-33, October 2004.
The possible responses when an EWS triggers an alarm may include-
The type of response will be dependent on the nature of both the threat to and the nature of the drinking water system, including the population it serves.
The Comprehensive Solution for Water Utilities to Ensure Drinking Water Safety and Quality
Continuous Contamination Biomonitor
Portable Contamination Biomonitor
Control & Analysis Software package
Solution Implementation Service package
Key part of a comprehensive Early Warning Solution:
Observe water quality change - broad, continuous.
Increasing: Certainty, Response. Cost
Automated Sample Collection
Public Healthy / Remedial Action
P.O. Box 72, Qiryat Tiv-on 36000, Israel
Tel: 972 4 9930530 Fax: 972 4 9533176