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    1. SUNFLOWER PRODUCTION IN TURKEY Dr Yalcin KAYA, Dr Necmi BESER Trakya Agricultural Research Institute Edirne - TURKEY

    3. Sunflower in Turkey Turkey planted area 450-550.000 ha Turkey Production 750-850.000 Ton Yield is about 1.500-1.700 kg/ha. Turkey has 3% ratio of sunflower production is in top 10 of the world. However, sunflower production is not enough for domestic consumption Almost 50% of oil needs imported as mostly sunflower and soybean seed, also crude oil and sunflower meal.

    4. Sunflower Oil in Turkey However, the half of Turkey oil need is supplied by imported from some countries such as Ukraine, Argentina, Bulgaria, Romania, etc. both as seed and crude oil. Turkey has very modern crushing factories. Mostly in Trakya Region. 4 times more capacity their domestic production (2 Million Ton seed) They are working with 40 50 % capacity

    5. Sunflower in Turkey Sunflower having high adaptation capability is growing mainly under dry conditions in Turkey and the world. However, sunflower could not produce in large areas due to getting low income and could not compete with other more profitable crops such as wheat, corn, soybean, cotton etc in both dry and irrigated conditions In recent years, the sunflower area in Turkey has been reduced due to low and variable prices and competition from alternate summer crops.

    6. Sunflower History in Turkey Sunflower production was started firstly by Turkish immigrants from Bulgaria in Turkey in 1950s. In 1960s very serious broomrape (Orobanche) parasite epidemic effects V-1646 and V-8931 Russian varieties were introduced from Russia in 1965 In 1980s broomrape epidemic again Hybrids in the production 1983 Private companies were in the sector

    7. Sunflower Research in Turkey Public Sunflower Research: Trakya Agricultural Research Institute Edirne, (TARI) National Coordinator Aegean Agr. Research Institute-Izmir; Private Company Research; PIONEER Seed Co. ADVANTA Seed Co. MAY Seed Co. MONSANTO Co. are conducting sunflower breeding program.

    8. Sunflower Seed Sector Total 2.000 Ton, International seed companies are active in seed sector. Syngenta (40%), Pioneer (20%), Advanta(13%), Monsanto (10%) Turkish companies; MAY Seed (10%), GENC Seed (4%), Turkish Government Farm (TIGEM) (1%), AGROMAR Seed (2%) also exist in the seed business. TIGEM and GENC Seed selling TARI, MAY Seed ASGROW and AGROMAR Seed are selling French hybrids.

    9. Sunflower Cultivars COMPANY NAME CULTIVAR NAME SYNGENTA Sanbro, SANAY IMI* MAY AGRO AS-503, Vanko, Sirena ADVANTA Isera, C-70165, H-1 PIONEER XF-4223, MONSANTO Coban, C-207, Alhaja GENC SEED Meric F1, TR-3080, RIMI* TIGEM TARSAN-1018, Aydin- 2002, Vniimik 8931

    10. Broomrape in Turkey In 2000s new broomrape races appeared again other than known 5 Races (A,B,C,D,E) Most probably 3 more races (F,G,H) They are the most aggressive races Broomrape renew themselves and break resistance in each 20 years More than 70% areas are affected seriously of Trakya region. Some resistant and tolerant sunflower hybrids are planted, have susceptibility after a couple of years, due to high virulence attack of new races.

    11. IMI RESISTANT HYBRIDS Some weeds esp. Xanthium strumarium L., Sinapis arvensis L. Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L., etc.. are big problem. To control O. cernua and weeds with IMI herbicide and resistant hybrids INTERVIX (Imazamox + Imazapyr) (33+15 g/l) by BASF Co. post emergence herbicide used CLEARFIELD SYSTEM widely used by farmers in Trakya region in 2003,

    12. IMI HYBRIDS IN THE MARKET The IMI herbicide cost per ha is 50 $, High demand expected in 2005, Because of high broomrape virulence attacks widely in 2004 season, % 25 market share (400-500 Ton) SyngentaSANAY, registered in 2003 (Modified SANBRO), 300 ton MonsantoTECHNOSOL, 2004, 30 ton Genc TohumRIMISOL, registered in 2004 (Novisad Hybrid), 18 Ton

    13. Cultural Practices in Turkey Sunflower growers use mainly hybrids in the production The seed quantity is about 4 kg ha-1. The pneumatic planters are used mostly by sunflower farmers. The plant density is 70x35 cm and the plant population is 40-45.000 per ha. The planting date usually is between the end of March and the beginning of May depending on years and regions.

    14. Cultural Practices in Turkey The trifluarin (75%) and IMI herbicides are used mostly in the weed control. The composed fertilizers (mostly 20-20-0) are applying only during the planting as mostly 50 kg ha-1 nitrogen and 50 kg ha-1 phosphorus rate. The harvesting time is in August 15 - September 15 depending on climate. Sunflower producers sell their products to Trakya Birlik Farmer Association (over 50%) and other private processors.

    15. CONCLUSIONS TURKEY SUNFLOWER POTENTIAL: 1 Million ha area and 2 million Ton Production, seed market 4.000 Ton RESEARCH GOALS: Developing having high seed and oil yield performance, drought&broomrape resistant hybrids INCREASING PRODUCTION: Solutions; Focusing on Mid oleic type, increasing branches of Trakya Birlik to purchase farmer product easily in different part of Turkey, subsidizing sunflower price