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radiation safety refresher training course
Radiation Safety Refresher Training Course
  • Welcome to our web-based course for radiation safety refresher training. Completing this course will fulfill your requirement for this year's instruction. After completing the first six parts of the course, which are common to all radiation source users, you will continue with material oriented for either for radioactive material users (5 parts) or radiation-producing device users (4 parts). Upon finishing either section, you'll arrive at a hub of icons leading to the following informational sections: Radioactive Materials, Radiation Producing Devices, Iodination Procedures, and Animal Use. The end of each section will bring you back to the same hub so that you can read all of the sections that apply to you. Self-testing questions are posed throughout the course for you to check your comprehension of the material. If you do not understand any information provided, please direct your questions to the Radiation Safety Officefor clarification.
  • When you have read all the sections relevant to your work, you must fax the completed registration form to attain credit for completing the refresher training. Opportunities are provided throughout the course to ask questions, offer comments, or visit other related sites.  If you choose not to complete the web-based training, contact the Radiation Safety Officer, Dramane Konate 775-2169, to schedule a refresher lecture.
radiation safety program administration section 1
Radiation Safety Program Administration(Section 1)
  • The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) regulates radioactive materials and radiation producing devices in Ohio. The Ohio Bureau of Radiation Protection (OBRP) is the ODH section that carries out this regulatory function. Inspectors from OBRP visit the university periodically to ensure that use of radioactive materials and radiation-producing devices (RPDs) conform to Ohio rules (3701:01-38 and 3701:01- 66) and the university license. University policies (i.e., the Radiation Safety Manual) are established by the Radiation Safety Committee and enforced by the Radiation Safety Officer. 
  • Users are responsible for complying with Ohio rules and university policies. Application of these rules, procedures and common sense form the foundation for the safety of each individual. Should you observe any situation or occurrence that in any way violates the objectives of the Radiation Safety Program or general safety, you must immediately bring it to the attention of your laboratory supervisor or the Radiation Safety Officer.  The Ohio Notice to Employees posted in each lab promotes laboratory safety.
  • Failure to follow safety regulations and the provisions of the manual can jeopardize the authority of the university to use radioactive materials and radiation-producing devices and could result in considerable negative impact on teaching and research programs, including the possible loss of funding. Violators of these regulations are therefore subject to penalties such as suspension or withdrawal of user status by the Radiation Safety Committee. In addition, users should be aware that careless or willful violation of Radiation Safety regulations may subject the perpetrator to civil or criminal prosecution.
radiation safety manual section 2
Radiation Safety Manual(Section 2)
  • Authorized and Faculty Users are provided copies of the Radiation Safety Manual for use by personnel in their laboratories or facilities. The manual provides administrative and operational procedures for safely using radioactive materials and radiation-producing devices at the university. Adherence to the manual's specifications ensures compliance with applicable Ohio rules.
  • The Radiation Safety Manual is also available at the Radiation Safety Office web site:[http://www.wright.edu/admin/ehs/RadOffice/radmanual.pdf].
  • You can easily find information in the manual by using the Table of Contents to note the page number of the information you're seeking and moving the side bar to that page. The formatting of the hard copy and web manuals slightly differ, but the content is the same. You are invited to bookmark the Radiation Safety Office web site and the Radiation Safety Manual for future reference.
alara action levels and dose limits section 3
ALARA Action Levels and Dose Limits(Section 3)
  • Any situation where a person receives a radiation dose that exceeds an ODH dose limit (see Table below) subjects WSU to a violation of ODH rules and possible administrative penalties. The WSU action levels are used to identify elevated personal doses for implementing administrative corrective actions. ALARA (an acronym that stands for As Low As Reasonably Achievable)represents the philosophy of keeping personal radiation doses as low as possible, while making use of radioactivity and RPDs as valuable research tools. 
  • Users of radioactive materials and RPDs should try to keep their radiation doses ALARA. By reducing personal exposure time, maximizing the distance from radiation sources, using appropriate shielding, and controlling contamination, researchers should receive negligible radiation doses. For comparison, each person's exposure to background radiation exposure in the Miami Valley is about 0.3 rem per year.

The ODH dose limit to members of the general public is 0.1 rem per year.

radiation dose monitoring section 4
Radiation Dose Monitoring(Section 4)
  • Dosimeters are used to monitor the external dose of persons exposed to high energy X, gamma, or beta radiation. They may be obtained through the Radiation Safety Office  by completing a dosimetry issuance card. The dosimeters are issued quarterly, with the cycles closing at the end of March, June, September, December.  Please make them available for pickup by Radiation Safety Office personnel. Persons who use only 3H, 14C, 35S, or small amounts of 125I are not issued dosimetry because the dosimeters don't effectively measure low energy beta or gamma radiation.
  • You should wear your dosimeter any time you may be exposed to radiation sources at WSU. The two types of personal dosimeters used here are:
    • OSLDs. Optically-stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) monitor your whole body dose, eye dose, and skin dose. They are worn on the front of the body between the collar and the waist with the label facing outward. The OSLD consists of a crystal that emits light when stimulated by a laser or diode light beam. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the person's radiation dose.
    • Finger rings. Finger rings are used when hands can be placed in or near intense radiation sources. They are worn on the hand predominantly exposed to radiation and under any protective gloves worn by the user. The label must face toward the radiation source to provide meaningful information.
  • Report to the Radiation Safety Office when a dosimeter has been lost and cannot be found, or if you suspect that your dosimeter has been tampered with or exposed to electrical shock, caustic chemicals, or excessive heat. Do not wear your dosimeter when exposed to radiation for medical or dental purposes.
  • You may request to review your dosimetry information any time. Each person issued a dosimeter will receive a copy of their results each year.
radiation biological effects section 5
Radiation Biological Effects(Section 5)
  • Ionizing radiation at very large doses is known to increase the incidence of cancer and birth anomalies. At low levels (less than 10 rem), these effects are either very small compared to the natural incidence or nonexistent, depending on the biological model used for estimating the potential risk. Regulatory agencies assume that radiation effects observed in people exposed to very high doses can be linearly extrapolated to background levels. This model is called the "linear no-threshold theory" because the modeled effects are linear with dose and no threshold is assumed. The linear model most likely over-estimates harmful biological effects because it does not account for the body's ability to repair damage.
  • Appendix C (Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation) of the Radiation Safety Manual synopsizes the range of biological effects, including more information on background radiation, low dose effects, genetic and prenatal effects, and effects from very large doses.
  • Background Radiation Doses:People living in the Miami Valley area receive about 300 mrem per year from natural radiation sources in the environment, such as:
          • Cosmic Rays ~30 mremUranium, thorium, radium in the soil ~30 mrem Radon ~200 mrem Isotopes in the body (such as 40K, 210Po, 14C, 3H) ~40 mrem
  • Most of the sources that contribute to background radiation dose to the US population vary considerably by location. This dose per annum ranges from about 100 mrem to about 1000 mrem. Other sources of radiation dose (per year) include:
          • Medical and dental diagnostic exams ~55 mremConsumer Products (TV sets, smoke detectors, etc.) ~10 mremSmoking (lung dose, tobacco contains 210Po) ~8000 mrem
radiation detection equipment section 6
Radiation Detection Equipment(Section 6)
  • Survey meters are used for to monitoring for contamination of personnel and work areas whenever high energy beta and gamma emitters are used. The effectiveness of most instruments for detecting beta contamination varies considerably. For example:
  • You should ensure the survey meter operates properly before you use it by:
    • Checking the battery. If it is low, replace the batteries or contact the RSO.
    • Checking the calibration to be sure the instrument has been calibrated within the past 12 months.
    • Checking the meter's response to a check source on the side of the instrument.
  • Do not use a survey meter that is not working properly or is out of calibration.
contamination surveys section 7
Contamination Surveys(Section 7)
  • Surveys for contamination demonstrate that no contamination is present or identify contaminated surfaces so that they can be cleaned before contamination spreads. The Radiation Office will perform contamination surveys when requested by the user. Surveys for removable contamination (swipe or wipe surveys) are performed according to usage.
  • Work areas and equipment should be kept free of contamination as practical. The action level for decontamination for beta and gamma emitters is 200 dpm / 100cm² or 3 times background.
personal protection section 8
Personal Protection(Section 8)
  • Wear standard laboratory protective clothing when handling unsealed radioactive materials. A lab coat and gloves will help prevent your hands or your clothes from inadvertent contamination. Safety glasses should be worn if you are handling dispersible or volatile chemicals.
  • Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, or apply cosmetics in areas where radioactive materials are handled.
  • Monitor the work area and gloves regularly to identify contamination and prevent its spread.
  • Minimize the time of your exposure. Practice new procedures without radioactivity first. Don't rush. Rushing through procedures can lead to spills and may actually\ increase your dose.
  • Maximize your distance from the source.
  • Use shielding. Lead works well to shield gamma ray emitters. Plastic  is effective shielding material for phosphorus-32, as well as other high energy beta emitters.
  • Procedures that produce contaminated aerosols, dusts, or gases shall be conducted in an approved fume hood.
control of radioactivity section 9
Control of Radioactivity (Section 9)
  • Purchasing Radioactive Materials. A coordinated process of ordering and receiving radioactive materials provides the initial step for controlling these materials at the university. The materials may be ordered by purchase orders or credit cards. The order requires approval from the Authorized User and the Radiation Safety Office to ensure the Authorized User is permitted to have the material and that possession limits are not exceeded. The information needed for approval is (a) the Authorized User, (b) isotope, (c) activity, and (d) chemical composition. Approval from the Radiation Safety Office can be obtained by email to the RSO and Radiation Safety Technician or by a phone call to either.
  • Security. In this era of potential terrorism, security of laboratory spaces and radioactivity is essential. Loss or theft of radioactive material can result in a violation of the ODH license, personal injury, and/or negative publicity. Radioactivity must be secured against tampering, loss, unauthorized removal, and theft. Lock the room where materials are used or stored whenever responsible lab personnel are not present. Radioactive materials and waste secured in a locked container achieve this requirement when the above measures cannot be met.
  • Radiation Warning Signs and Labels:  Radiation signs heighten the awareness of persons who may enter the lab.  Labels identify areas and equipment that may be contaminated and provide a reminder for lab personnel, students, custodians, and maintenance workers to exercise caution.  Labeled equipment may not be removed from a restricted area to an unrestricted area for any purpose (including repair, maintenance, disposal, or resale) until radiation safety personnel verify the item is free of contamination and removes the radiation warning labels. The surveyor affixes a certificate to the equipment that shows the equipment has been cleared.
spill response section 10
Spill Response(Section 10)
  • A spill is an uncontrolled release of radioactive material. The procedures for responding to a spill of radioactive materials are:
    • Warn other persons in the area that a spill has occurred. Restrict uninvolved persons from entering the area.
    • Prevent the spread of contamination by covering the spill with absorbent paper or establishing a boundary to the spill site
    • Wearing protective clothing, clean up the spill with absorbent paper, soap and water, or a commercial decontamination agent. Place contaminated materials in radioactive trash.
    • Survey the area. Check hands, clothing, and shoes of potentially-contaminated persons.
    • Report the spill to the Authorized User and RSO. See the cover page of the Radiation Safety Manual for emergency contact phone numbers.
    • Continue decontamination, if indicated.
  • If the spill involves more than a millicurie of radioactive material, it would be prudent to vacate the lab and immediately contact the RSO.
radioactive material usage and waste section 11
Radioactive Material Usage and Waste(Section 11)
  • Inventory Cards. The Radiation Safety Office provides a yellow Inventory Card with each stock vial of radioactivity for you to track the material's usage and disposal. To the right is an example of a completed card.  Radiation Safety Office personnel review these cards during audits to update the computer inventory system. 
  • Waste Handling and Labeling. Handling and security of radioactive waste entails the same precautions as other radioactive materials. The waste must be properly contained to prevent spills or breakage. Identify the waste type and contents with labels for solid, liquid, scintillation vial, or animal waste supplied by the Radiation Safety Office.  
  • Solid Waste. The Radiation Safety Office picks up all solid waste. Please use heavy duty plastic bags for unbreakable waste or cardboard boxes for glass and other breakable materials. Dispose of sharp objects in appropriate containers to prevent needle sticks and finger cuts.  Do not commingle short-lived isotopes, like 32P with long-lived isotopes, like 3H or 14C.
Short-Lived Solid Waste.  With consideration for ALARA, please remove labels from waste items before discarding them into the radioactive waste container.  Radiation safety personnel rummages through the waste after it has decayed and removes or obliterates radiation labels.  As you can imagine, this task can be disgusting, or even hazardous if we come across unprotected sharp objects.  We appreciate your effort in making our job easier.  And remember, the outside of the waste container must still be properly labeled.
  • Liquid Waste. Investigators are encouraged to turn in radioactive liquids to the Radiation Safety Office for disposal in an effort to minimize the radioactivity discharged to the sanitary sewer. Section 2.24.5 of the Radiation Safety Manual addresses disposal of liquid radioactive waste requirements.
  • Scintillation Vial Waste. Scintillation vials should be stored upright to prevent leakage of the fluid. Storage boxes are available from the Radiation Safety Office. The university has received approval to dispose of most biodegradable scintillation cocktails into the sanitary sewer on the main campus. We are limited to 1 liter per day. Users are encouraged to submit the scintillation vials to the Radiation Safety Office for disposal, unless other arrangements are with the RSO.
rpd personal protection section 6
RPD Personal Protection(Section 6)
  • Minimize the time of your exposure. Your dose (D) equals the dose rate (DR) times the time (t) of exposure. By reducing your time of exposure, you reduce your dose.

D (mRem) = DR (mRem/hr) * t (time)

  • Maximize your distance from the source. Radiation from a point source decreases by an inverse square relationship. If you double your distance from the source, your dose rate is reduced by 1/4.  In the equation below, DR1 = dose rate at distance X1 from a source, DR2 = dose rate at distance X2 from a source.

DR1 * X12 = DR2 * X22

  • Use shielding. High density material (e.g., lead) effectively shields X rays. The thickness of shielding needed to attenuate the x-ray beam is highly dependent on the density of the shielding material and the energy of the radiation. High energy x-rays require more shielding material than low energy x-rays.
Immediately turn off any RPD if an unsafe condition arises, such as smoke or fire, accidental personal exposure, or flooding. Inform the Facility Coordinator.
  • Never expose any body part in or near the primary beam
  • Never disengage a safety interlock or warning device or operate a unit if one of these systems malfunctions. [Note: Repair or maintenance of some RPDs may require temporary disabling of interlock systems. Such a condition can present a hazardous situation; hence, heightened safety precautions are imperative. Precautions include: approval from the facility coordinator; procedures approved by the Facility Coordinator and RSO; using locks, tags, signs, and/or log book entries to clearly show the reduced safe environment; and verification that the safety devices are fully operational before routine use of the unit.]
  • Never energize electrical equipment if the floor or equipment are wet or high voltage wires are exposed.
  • RPD operations must conform to the facility operating procedures. Never operate equipment for which you have not been trained.
  • Never alter, repair, or perform maintenance on an RPD component without authorization and approval from the Facility Coordinator.
rpd operating procedures section 7
RPD Operating Procedures(Section 7)
  • The Operating Procedures (OP or Facility Operating Manual) provide guidance to device users on the facility procedures and safety requirements. The OP is produced by the Facility Coordinator. A copy should be kept with the x-ray device for review by the operator. 
  • Any directions to operators not mentioned in the Radiation Safety Manual or the unit's technical manual should be discussed in the OP. Information that may be included are:
    • Training requirements for operation
    • Safety interlocks and warning devices
    • checklists for startup, operation, shutdown, emergencies, or testing of interlocks
    • General safety concerns, such as electrical, noxious gases, etc.
    • Security
    • Use log
    • Dosimetry
rpd operating procedures section 7 ct operating procedures for bone densitometers


  • Scanner is to be operated in accordance with operating instructions as outlined in the

various manuals. No person is to be measured if the daily quality assurance procedure has



  • The following persons are allowed to operate the scanner when patients are to be measured:

- Holders of a Radiological License of the State of Ohio

- Trainees under the supervision of a person who holds a Radiological License of the State

of Ohio

  • All scanner operators must be approved by the Director of the BioMedical Imaging

Laboratory to operate the scanner and execute the procedures for which their training is

documented in the Competency Check List for Bone Densitometry. The scanner operators

have internet access to the radiation rules and regulations of the Ohio Department of Health

(www.odh.state.oh.us). The scanner operating procedures and general radiation safety will

be reviewed annually, and the review will be documented by signature and date.

  • The operators are required to wear a personal dosimeter. The operator shall be no closer

than the location of the computer workstation or 3 feet from the patient during operation

of the x-ray tube. The door to the room must be closed while the x-ray tube is operated.

rpd operating procedures section 7 ct operating procedures for bone densitometers18


  • Any person to be measured has to fall in one of the following categories:

- Referred by a physician

- Entered into a research project with signed consent form

  • All persons to be measured will be informed that the DXA scanning procedure involves X-rays.


  • In the case of an emergency that requires vacating the premises, abort scan and follow standard procedures.
  • Initial release - 2Oct01
  • Revision 1 - 15May03
  • Revision 2 - 25Oct07 (Combined SOP for all scanners)
rpd quality assurance program section 8
RPD Quality Assurance Program(Section 8)
  • According  the Ohio Administrative Code 3701:1-66-04, the Quality Assurance (QA) Program provides for written procedures to identify problems, defective equipment, and unsafe practices of radiation-producing devices (RPD) so the problems can be quickly corrected. At WSU, the QA Program is documented in the Radiation Safety Manual and the facility Operating Procedures.
  • During inspections by Ohio Department of Health personnel, the inspectors will likely ask to see the following items
    • the Radiation Safety Manual and Facility Operating Procedures.
    • documentation of training of operators on Facility Operating Procedures.
    • documentation of training to "individuals likely to be working in a restricted area or who may receive 100 mrem/year" on (1) the potential hazards of being present in the area, (2) the location, boundaries, and purpose of the restricted area, and (3) a description of the RPD and its location.
    • for any unit used to x-ray people, a copy of the Ohio radiographer's or X-ray Machine Operator's license for each operator must be available.
    • an inventory of each RPD at the facility, including the location and RPD description.
    • data and test results of the evaluation of each RPD and its shielding and surroundings.
    • maintenance logs and incident reports
    • documentation of personnel responsible for monitoring and performing QA tests.
    • calibration certificates for each piece of equipment used for radiation monitoring or QA testing.
    • dosimetry results.
research involving animals radioactive materials
Research Involving Animals & Radioactive Materials
  • Researchers who use radioactivity incorporated into live animals must obtain specified approval from the
  • Radiation Safety Committee (RSC). They must submit their application (Form LAR/RSO 14, "Animal Care
  • Information", Appendix L of the Radiation Safety Manual) to the RSC via the Radiation Safety Officer.
  • Instructions to LAR. The Authorized User must ensure that the presence of radioactivity and specific instructions are fully communicated to the LAR staff by:
    • Posting a "Caution: Radioactive Materials" sign at the entryway of the room holding the contamination animals.
    • Completing Appendix M of the Radiation Safety Manual and posting the form on the animal room door. This form provides specific information and instructions regarding personal protection, dosimetry, feeding, changing bedding, and other special instructions.
    • Labeling cages housing contaminated animals, waste container, and any equipment that is potentially contaminated.
  • Radioactive Animal Waste. Animal carcasses, excrement, and associated wastes containing radioactivity will be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen. A waste label available from the Radiation Safety Office shall be affixed to the bag. Contact the Radiation Safety Office for disposal. Animal waste containing only H-3 or C-14 with activity less than 0.05 microcuries per gram of animal tissue averaged over the entire animal waste should be documented on the Inventory Card.
iodination procedures
Iodination Procedures
  • An iodination process uses iodinated material to make compounds labeled with radioactive iodine. The procedure typically uses millicurie quantities of I-125 and can pose a genuine potential for exceeding university limits for contamination and personal exposure. For these reasons extra procedures, as shown below, apply for iodination experiments. See Section 2.21.2 of the Radiation Safety Manual.
    • Inform the RSO at least 2 days in advance of each iodination procedure.
    • A thyroid bioassay must be performed on each participant before the first iodination. After each iodination thereafter, a follow-up bioassay must be performed within 24-72 hours of completion (optimally, the next day).
    • Inform the RSO immediately if inhalation or personal contamination is suspected. If an intake is confirmed a potassium iodide blocking agent must be administered as soon as possible to mitigate exposure to the thyroid.
    • Prepare an "iodine trap" solution of 0.1 M each of sodium thiosulfate, sodium iodide, and sodium hydroxide. This solution will trap free iodine for decontamination and disposal purposes.
    • The work must be performed in a fume hood, vented to the outside, with a minimal flow rate of 100 ft/min. The flow rate must be certified within the past 12 months. Ensure the fan is on during the procedure. Keep the sash at a low, but comfortable position to maximize negative draw.
A fume hood insert (radio-iodination hood) with charcoal absorbers must be used to mitigate the release of radio-iodine to the atmosphere. Ensure the fan works properly during the entire procedure.
  • A calibrated survey meter with a low-energy gamma detector is required. Frequent monitoring of gloves and around the fume hood should be performed to quickly identify contamination.
  • First practice the iodination procedures without radioactivity to become familiar with the steps involved and identify ways to reduce the potential of exposure.
  • Wear two pairs of gloves to prevent absorption through the skin. Change the outer pair immediately if contaminated.
  • The RSO may monitor the vented exhaust from the fume hood and the breathing zone of the person performing the iodination to ensure no limits are exceeded.
  • Keep contaminated trash in the fume hood as long as possible. Double bag the waste for pickup by EHS.
  • Monitor gloves, exposed clothing, lab coat, and the work area (including the floor) for contamination after completion of work. Monitor and wash hands before leaving the lab.
  • Swipe survey the use area for removable contamination.
radiation safety refresher training registration form print form and return to rso fax 937 775 4286
Radiation Safety Refresher TrainingRegistration FormPrint form and return to:RSOFax: 937-775-4286
  • Title: Dr. Mr. Mrs. Ms.First Name: Last Name: Department: Status: Phone Number: E-mail address:
  • You have now completed the radiation safety refresher course. Thank-you for your participation.  We invite your opinion on this web-based training.Is the material understandable? Yes No  
  • Is the training method effective for covering the material?  Yes No 
  • Are you given the opportunity to ask questions? Yes No
  • Please use the space below to offer your questions or comments regarding any information provided or related issues?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________