2011 RADIATION SAFETY REFRESHER TRAINING. RESPONDING TO A RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL INCIDENT IN THE LAB. It can happen to the best of us. PRIOR TO BEGINNING ANY RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL WORK. Know the hazards and precautions associated with the radionuclide(s) that you are using.
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RESPONDING TO A RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL INCIDENT IN THE LAB It can happen to the best of us.
PRIOR TO BEGINNING ANY RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL WORK • Know the hazards and precautions associated with the radionuclide(s) that you are using. • Inform all coworkers of your work and fill them in on precautions that they must take. • Make sure that all cleaning and decontamination materials are readily available.
REMEMBER • In the case of an injury ASSIST PEOPLEFIRST • The telephone number for Risk Management and Safety is (63)1-5037. This is for 8 AM to 5 PM Monday through Friday. • After hours, weekends, and holidays call Notre Dame Security Dispatch (63)1-5555.
EMERGENCY RESPONSE ITEMS REQURED FOR LABS • Our NRC License requires the following to be present in in case of an emergency: Disposable gloves Housekeeping gloves Disposable lab coats Disposable head coverings
Items needed (continued) • Disposable shoe covers • Absorbent paper with plastic backing • Masking tape • Plastic trash bags with twist ties • “Radioactive Material labeling tape • Marking pen • RAM labeling tags • Wipes
Items needed ( continued) • Instructions for Emergency Procedures (in Radiation Safety Manual) • Clipboard and Spill Report Form • Pencil • Appropriate survey instrument, calibrated and with batteries
Most of these items should be in your lab. If one or more is not, and is needed for spill cleanup, it may be found in the spill response kit for your location. Familiarize yourself with its locations.
MINOR SPILLS • Make everyone in the area aware of the possibly contaminated area(s). • Clean from area of least concentration to area of greatest concentration. • Regularly monitor yourself, the area (not just the places that you know to be contaminated), and others in the area. Monitor everyone before they leave the area. • Dispose of all contaminated material into the appropriate rad waste (long or short half-life, solids or sharps, etc.) • Call Risk Management and Safety if you have questions about clean-up procedure or if reduction of contamination does not readily take place.
MAJOR SPILLS • May include spillage of volatile material, or mixed wastes. • Follow same procedures as for minor spills for clean-up. If there is a possible airborne release, or if radiation levels may be high (>5 mR/hr), evacuate the area without cleaning, and call Risk Management and Safety immediately. • To avoid spread of contamination, personnel in the area of the spill, who do not require medical attention, should not leave the general area until released by Radiation Safety workers.
FIRE, EXPLOSION, OR PERSONAL INJURY • ASSIST INJURED PEOPLE FIRST. • Call 911 and let the dispatcher know that radioactive material may be involved in the incident. • Inform emergency workers of the presence of radioactive material. • All materials, including bandages and other first aid items, should be considered contaminated and treated as radioactive waste. • Make mental notes as to any areas where contamination may have been spread (eg. ambulance), and inform the Risk Management and Safety responder of those areas so that they may be surveyed and, if necessary, decontaminated.
FOLLOWING UP • After cleaning the area and caring for all injured personnel, make notes regarding the details of the incident. It is helpful to do this while they are still fresh in your mind. • Regardless of the extent of contamination, a final swipe and, if applicable, meter survey must be conducted. Results of all tests must be recorded in the log book. Cleaning must continue until the swipes indicate levels <1000 DPM/100 sq. cm. (<20 DPM/100 sq. cm. for I-125, Sr-90, and all alpha emitters except uranium.)
CHECK YOURSELF BEFORE YOU LEAVE THE AREA • Remember to check your feet and hands, and those of others in the area, prior to leaving the lab. Use a Geiger-Counter, if it is the appropriate monitoring instrument, and go slowly and close to the surface of potentially contaminated areas. • For certain radionuclides (eg. H-3) swipe tests my be the only effective monitoring tool.
DO NOT HESITATE TO CALL RISK MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY AT ANY TIME ( AFTER ASSISTING AN INJURED PERSON) • (63)1-5037 8 AM to 5 PM Monday through Friday. Talk to a person; have them contact Rad Safety personnel if necessary– DO NOT LEAVE VOICEMAIL (63)1-5555 after hours, weekends, and holidays • Post in each lab using rad material.
LAB SURVEYS Attention all users of non-sealed radioactive material.
If you use non-sealed radioactive material: • You must conduct a laboratory survey -- Every month in which such material is used. Additionally, -- Every time more than one mCi of P-32 or I-125 is used. -- At the conclusion of your project or experiment.
Some labs will be required to do weekly surveys. RM&S will inform you if this is true for your lab.
DOCUMENTATION OF THE SURVEY MUST INCLUDE: • A diagram of the area surveyed. • A list of items and equipment surveyed. • Specific locations on the survey diagram where wipe test was taken. • Ambient radiation levels with appropriate units. • Contamination levels with appropriate units. (continued)
Make and model number of instrumentsused. • Backgroundlevels. • Name of the person making the evaluationand recording the results and date.
ACTION LEVELS I-125, I-129 and 20 dpm/100 sq cm all alpha emitters I-126, I-131, 200 dpm/100 sq cm I-133, Sr-90 All other beta-gamma 1K dpm/100 sq cm
DECONTAMINATION MUST BE DONE IF LEVELS EXCEED THOSE LISTED ABOVE. • You must resurvey after decontamination, and document as previously instructed. • Contact RM&S if you are unable to clean contaminated area to the required levels.
TRANSFER OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS • Contact Risk Management and Safety prior to transferring any quantity of radioactive material from your laboratory. • All shipments of radioactive material to another licensee must be handled by Risk Management and Safety. • Permission must be granted by RM&S prior to having any radioactive material transferred to your lab from another facility.
WASTE REVIEW Not a waste of time.
WASTE STREAMS • 1. Dry-Solid Long Half-Life • 2. Dry-Solid Short Half-Life • 3. Aqueous Liquids • 4. Organic Liquids w/H-3 or C-14 • 5. Other Organic Liquids • 6. Scint Vials w/H-3 or C-14 • 7. Other Scint Vials • 8. Animal Carcasses w/H-3 or C-14 • 9. Other Animal Carcasses
LABEL WASTE • ALL RADIOACTIVE WASTE MUST BE LABELLED AS SUCH, AND SECRED AGAINST UNAUTHORIZED REMOVAL (INCLUDING REMOVAL BY BUILDING SERVICES PERSONNEL.) • CONTACT RM&S IMMEDIATELY IF MATERIAL IS THOUGHT TO BE MISSING FROM YOUR LAB.
Dry-Solid Long Half-life • 1. Contains radionuclides with halflife of greater than 89 days (eg. H-3, C-14, Na.22, Cs-137) • 2. Paper, plastic, glass • 3. No liquids • 4. Must be in closed, sturdy box or trash bag.
Dry-Solid Short Half-Life • 1. Contains radionuclides with half-life of less than 89 days (eg. Na-24, P-32, P-33, S- 35, Cr-51, and I-125) • 2. Paper, plastic, glass • 3. No liquids • 4. Must be in sturdy, closed box or bag
Aqueous Liquids • 1. May contain radionuclides of any half-life • 2. Must be non-organic and readily dispersible in water • 3. “Biologicals” accepted • 4. Carboy (white) must be tightly shut and checked for leakage prior to pick-up
Organic Liquids • 1. Contain organic material such as scintillation cocktail • 2. Must be in red carboys
Vial Waste • 1. Vials must be placed in trays similar to those in which they were delivered, put into a box, or • 2. Placed in a box with a strong liner
NEVER POUR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DOWN A LAB SINK • All liquid waste – whether aqueous, organic, or cocktails from vials – must be collected for disposal by Risk Management and Safety
Animal Carcasses • 1. Place in plastic bag, seal, and store in a freezer until it is picked up
WASTE WILL NOT BE PICKED UP UNLESS IT IS PROPERLY CONTAINED AND WASTE FORM IS COMPLETED Bags must be taped shut and carboys tightly capped.
Activities of All Waste Must Be Entered on Waste Form Before the Waste Can Be Picked Up • 1. List all radionuclides in the waste • 2. Circle proper units • 3. Be as close as possible to the nearest microcurie • 4. Allow for decay of short half-life waste
Remember • 1. If you are uncertain your waste is radioactive, you must assume that it is, and dispose of it as such. • 2. If you are uncertain your waste contains long half-life material, you must assume that it does, and dispose of it as such.
LOG SHEETS • Completing log sheets as the work is done makes keeping track of waste much easier. • Complete the portion of the sheet that “breaks down” the type of waste and activity as well as the portion that lists material used.
ADDITIONAL INVENTORY INFORMATION • Complete inventories of radioactive material must be completed every April. This process is made easier by keeping log sheets up to date, and waste reports that reflect accurate activities. • Make regular checks of freezers, refrigerators, and storage containers to check on “forgotten” material. We do not like surprises.
USING YOUR SURVEY METER(Not Counting Geigers) • Labs using radioisotopes other than H-3 and C-14, as well as x-ray diffractrometers, must have a working survey meter. • It must have been calibrated by RM&S within the past 12 months. • You must have a check source of known dose rate.
BEFORE USING THE METER • Know how to perform a Battery Check, and do one prior to each use of the meter. • Check against the check source prior to using the meter. Know what the dose rate on that check should be, and report differences greater than +/- ten percent to RM&S.
KNOW WHAT SCALE YOU ARE USING • If the meter “peg out” (goes off-scale), go to a different scale. For example, you are on the X0.1 scale, and the needle goes to the far right, you must go to the X1.0 scale. If it continues to peg-out, go to the X10 scale, etc. • Likewise, if you get no response on the X100 scale, keep moving down.
SHIELDING SOURCES • All sources of radiation must be shielded so that the dose rate at the nearest accessible surface of the source is no greater that 5.0 mR/hr. • Set-ups of experiments must have appropriate shielding. • Sources or vials must be in pigs or shielded storage areas if not in use.
IMPORTANT REMINDER • Do not accept delivery of a radioactive materials package from anyone other than Risk Management and Safety personnel. • If someone in your building or laboratory has accepted such a package, do not open it, and call Risk Management and Safety immediately. Tell someone there what has occurred; do not just leave a voice mail, or say you will call back later, if the Radiation Safety Officer or Health Physicist is not present.
SAFETY CONSCIOUS WORK ENVIRONMENT • You are free to report any safety concern to Risk Management and Safety without fear of retaliation. • The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (materials) or the State Department of Health (machines) may also be contacted without fear of retaliation. Notices with appropriate telephone numbers are posted in the laboratories. • You may view your dosimetry (film badge) report at any time.