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Radiation Safety Refresher for Radiation Producing Machine (xrd) Safety. Conrad Sherman x9-3911 RSO/Health Physicist Marcus Balanky x9-5167 ARSO/ Health Physicist Vern Ares x9-5167 Assistant Health Physicist Environmental Health & Safety Radiation Safety.

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Radiation safety refresher for radiation producing machine xrd safety

Radiation Safety Refresher for Radiation Producing Machine (xrd) Safety

Conrad Sherman x9-3911

RSO/Health Physicist

Marcus Balanky x9-5167

ARSO/ Health Physicist

Vern Ares x9-5167

Assistant Health Physicist

Environmental Health & Safety

Radiation Safety

Annual refresher training is required
Annual Refresher Training is Required (xrd) Safety

  • Option 1 –Challenge the test

  • Option 2 – review this presentation, radiation safety manual, rpm fundamentals workbook (ucsc radiation)

  • Option 3 –request a class


  • Pass the Test

  • Test is on e-commons

  • Please complete within 30 days of your last test date (if you don’t know it, then look on e-commons, in your PI’s radiation safety folder/training is a report showing training for all users within your lab group.

    Location of EHS/Radiation published materials http://ehs.ucsc.edu/lab_research_safety/xray_safety.php

Radiation safety
Radiation Safety (xrd) Safety

Purpose of this class
Purpose of This Class (xrd) Safety

  • Annual x-ray XRD RPM users at UCSC

  • Fulfill regulatory requirements

  • Campus and UC Policy

You are here (xrd) Safety

Pregnancy Policy (xrd) Safety

X ray diffraction safety training

X-ray Diffraction Safety Training (xrd) Safety

Slides modified from a class offered by John Pickering SJSU Radiation safety Officer

What are x rays
What are x-rays? (xrd) Safety

  • X-rays are photons (electromagnetic radiation) which originate in the energy shells of an atom, as opposed to gamma rays, which are produced in the nucleus of an atom.

Visible light
Visible Light (xrd) Safety

X rays on em spectrum
X-rays on EM spectrum (xrd) Safety

What are x rays1
What are x-rays? (xrd) Safety

  • X-rays are produced when accelerated electrons interact with a target, usually a metal absorber, or with a crystalline structure. This method of x-ray production is known as bremsstrahlung.

  • The bremsstrahlung produced is proportional to the square of the energy of the accelerated electrons used to produce it, and is also proportional to the atomic number (Z) of the target (absorber).

Photon energy and total power
Photon Energy and Total Power (xrd) Safety

As the voltage increases the penetration increases

As the Current increases the dose rate increases

The total power

P = V x I

What are x rays2
What are x-rays? (xrd) Safety

  • Many different types of machines produce x-rays, either intentionally or inadvertently. Some devices that can produce x-rays are x-ray diffractometers, electron microscopes, and x-ray photoelectron spectrometers.

  • X-rays can also be produced by the attenuation of beta particles emitted from radionuclides.

How x rays are produced
How X-rays are Produced (xrd) Safety

When fast-moving electrons slam into a metal object, x-rays are produced. The kinetic energy of the electron is transformed into electromagnetic energy.

X-ray Tube

Radiation sources
Radiation Sources (xrd) Safety

  • X-ray diffraction is a source of very intense radiation.

  • The primary beam can deliver as much as 400,000 R/minute

  • Collimated and filtered beams can produce about 5,000 to 50,000 R/minute

  • Diffracted beams can be as high as 1 R/minute

At high doses we know radiation causes harm
At HIGH Doses, We KNOW Radiation Causes Harm (xrd) Safety

  • High Dose effects seen in:

    • Radium dial painters

    • Early radiologists

    • Atomic bomb survivors

    • Populations near Chernobyl

    • Medical treatments

    • Criticality Accidents

  • In addition to radiation sickness, increased cancer rates were also evident from high level exposures.

Ionizing radiation
Ionizing Radiation (xrd) Safety

Produces damage through ionization and excitation

Bioeffects (xrd) Safety

  • Somatic (body) effects of whole body irradiation can be divided into "prompt" effects and "delayed" effects.

  • Prompt – effects that appear quickly

  • Delayed – effects that may take years to appear


Diagnostic X-ray



Genetic effects
Genetic Effects (xrd) Safety

  • Somatic

    • Damage to genetic material in the cell

    • May cause cell to become a cancer cell

    • Probability is very low at occupational doses

  • Heritable

    • Passed on to offspring

    • Observed in some animal studiesbut not human

Biological effects of radiation
Biological Effects of Radiation (xrd) Safety

  • are dependent upon:

    • Total energy deposited

    • Distribution of deposited energy

Low dose, low-dose rate radiation exposure. The effects are in great dispute. It is thought that the effects of a protracted dose of radiation are not as great as with an acute dose because of biological repair mechanisms.

Prenatal radiation exposure
Prenatal Radiation Exposure (xrd) Safety

  • Sensitivity of the unborn

    • Rapidly dividing cells are radiosensitive

  • Potential effects

    • Low birth weight - (most common)

    • Mental retardation

    • Chance of childhood cancer

Bioeffects x rays and skin
Bioeffects- X-rays and Skin (xrd) Safety

  • Most radiation overexposures from analytical x-ray equipment are to the extremities.

  • For x-rays of about 5-30 keV, irradiation of the fingers or hands does not result in significant damage to blood-forming tissue.

  • At high exposures some general somatic effects to the skin can occur. Very high exposures may necessitate skin grafting or amputation of the affected extremity.

  • Biological effects can be observed at 10 rem in special blood studies. Typically effects are visually observed at 50 to 100 rem.

X ray burns vs thermal burns
X-Ray Burns vs. Thermal Burns (xrd) Safety

  • Most nerve endings are near the surface of the skin

  • High energy x-rays penetrate the outer layer of the

    skin that contains most of the nerve endings so one does not feel an X-Ray burn until the damage has been done

  • X-rays penetrate to the deeper, basal skin layer, damaging or killing the rapidly dividing germinal cells, that are destined to replace the outer layers

Accident case study
Accident Case Study (xrd) Safety

  • 3 days after exposure

    • Note erythema and swelling

  • 1 month after

    • Note blistering and erythema

  • 2 months after

  • Case Study - A radiation accident at an industrial accelerator facility

  • 3MV accelerator. 40 rad/s inside victim’s shoes, 1300 rad/s to hands.


ALARA (xrd) Safety

As Low As Reasonably Achievable

Dose examples
Dose Examples (xrd) Safety

Documenting surveys
Documenting Surveys (xrd) Safety

  • surveys must be documented

  • Record the following:

    • date performed

    • area(s) surveyed (a map helps!)

    • results

    • identity of surveyor

    • instrument used

    • action taken if problem is found

Engineering controls
Engineering Controls (xrd) Safety

  • Interlocks – never bypass interlocks or

    other safety devices

  • Warning Lights – know the beam status

    whenever working with XRD

  • Shielding

  • Locked doors

Failsafe equipment
Failsafe Equipment (xrd) Safety

  • Getting better

  • High reliability

  • Still see reports of failures

  • Always use survey meter

Precautions (xrd) Safety

  • If you rely on an interlock to turn off the beam for the purposes of accessing the sample area, you must confirm the beam is off using a calibrated survey meter before your put your hand in the cabinet enclosure.

Interlock as on off switch
Interlock as on-off switch (xrd) Safety

  • Never

Key control
Key Control (xrd) Safety

  • Who has keys

  • Special alignment bypass keys

  • Never Left Out, always locked in case/cabinet

  • Only PI and Lab Manager hold access to bypass keys

Access (xrd) Safety

  • You are required to secure access to your RPMs.

  • Rooms where RPMs are present must be kept locked if the machine is left unattended.

  • If your RPM is equipped with a key interlock then the key must be removed when the machine is not being used.

New machine moving machine decommissioning
New Machine (xrd) SafetyMoving Machine?Decommissioning?

  • Call RSO

Problems with equipment
Problems with equipment (xrd) Safety

  • If there are any questions or concerns about the functioning of an XRD unit, it must be taken out of service immediately and reported to the unit supervisor.

    [Be aware that shutter mechanisms can

    fail. Warning lights can fail.]

General methods of protection
General Methods of Protection (xrd) Safety

  • Time

  • Distance

  • Shielding

Verify you have viewed this powerpoint
Verify you have viewed this powerpoint (xrd) Safety

  • Logon to ecommons RAD SAF Exams and take 2011 RPM XRD Refresher

Test (xrd) Safety

  • To receive credit for this online training course, you must complete the exam and receive a score of 80% or greater.

  • You may take test up to 3 times

  • Some questions have multiple correct answers

  • You can review answers at end of each test

  • Each test is a new set of questions randomized from test bank

  • If you do not pass, we will go over failed questions with you

Test completion
Test Completion (xrd) Safety

  • Online e-commons RADSAFE EXAMS


  • Send to ehs trailer

Verify you have viewed this powerpoint1
Verify you have viewed this powerpoint (xrd) Safety

  • Logon to ecommons RAD SAF Exams and take 2011 rpm machine user Refresher quiz

    e-commons portal(https://ecommons.ucsc.edu/xsl-portal)

We re there for you
We’re there for you. (xrd) Safety

Environmental Health & Safety x9-2553

  • Conrad Sherman x9-3911

  • RSO/Health Physicist

  • Marcus Balanky x9-5167

  • ARSO/ Health Physicist

  • Vern Ares x9-5167

  • Assistant Health Physicist

  • Environmental Health & Safety

  • Radiation Safety

  • (831) 459-3911

  • Web sitehttp://www.ehs.ucsc.edu/