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Enology (Winemaking) {Chapter 4, Vine et. al.} Presentation by: Julia Wood Nathan Chambers John Engelbert Business 416W Dr. Atkin Questions to Answer What is Wine? (The product of fermenting and processing of juice or must into wine)

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enology winemaking chapter 4 vine et al
Enology (Winemaking) {Chapter 4, Vine et. al.}

Presentation by:

Julia Wood

Nathan Chambers

John Engelbert

Business 416W

Dr. Atkin

questions to answer
Questions to Answer
  • What is Wine? (The product of fermenting and processing of juice or must into wine)
  • How much sugar is contained in wine after fermentation to complete dryness? (.001% to .002% of unfermented sugar)
  • Name two types of common fining agents in wine production? (Bentonite and egg whites).
  • What does Meritage rhyme with? (Heritage)

Enology = Winemaking

British version of the word is Oenology ~ stemming from the Greek origin oinos (wine) and logos

what is wine
What is wine?
  • It is the result of fermenting and processing grapes or some other fruit – sometimes even vegetables.
  • The BATF describes wine as “the product of the juice of the sound, ripe grape.”
  • Wine, as used in the industry is defined “the product of fermenting & processing grape juice or must.”
the science of it all
The science of it all…

Sugars and Sweetness

Reducing sugars – wines fermented to “ absolute bone dryness” still contain between .001% and .002% of unfermented sugars.

Most common reducing sugars are glucose and fructose, but the exact reasoning why they do not completely convert during fermentation remains unclear…

the science of it all cont
The science of it all…(cont.)

Acids and Acidity

Principal acids involved in wine making:

  • Tartaric
  • Malic
  • Lactic
  • Acetic

The total of these and other minor acids determine the amount of tartness the palate will receive from the wine.

Total acidity is a measurement made by analysis in winery labs in order to quantify tartness in juice, must, or wine.

the science of it all cont7
The science of it all…(cont.)

Levels of Acidity

  • Less than .500 g/100 mL are generally considered bland.
  • Exceeding .800 g/100 mL are usually sharp.

Sweetness levels tend to mask total acidity and vice versa.

the science of it all cont8
The science of it all…(cont.)


The measurement of the active acid “strength” in juice, must, or wine is expressed in terms of pH.

Determination is made by measuring the hydrogen ion concentration in a given solution.

A pH scale is from 0 – 14

  • A 7 on the scale is as pure as water.
  • Each gradient from 7 toward 0 or 14 becomes more intense.
  • The lower the level, the higher the acidity.
  • The higher the level, the lower the acidity.
the science of it all cont9
The science of it all…(cont.)

Sulfur Dioxide

  • Sulfur Dioxide is a gas having a very prickly, sharp pungency in the nose.
  • Heavy doses of sulfur dioxide gas leave an unpleasant powdery residue on the palate.
  • The gaseous form of SO2is generally used by larger wineries, where greater quantities are required.
the science of it all cont10
The science of it all…(cont.)

Malolactic Fermentation

  • The principle effect is a reduction in total acidity along with a buttery-like flavor development known as diacetyl.
  • As a rule, malolactic fermentation is desired in more complex table wines, and undesired in in lighter types, which express greater fruit flavor profiles.
blending of wine
Blending of Wine
  • Primarily bottled wines of France (especially Bordeaux) are blends of different varietals
  • Champagne is a blend of Pinot noir, Pinot menuier and Chardonnay
  • California Sparkling wine can be a blend of varietals that the winemaker deems sufficient
  • There is no magic formula to be found in blending of wine
5 tips for blending
  • Blending reduces the character of individual components
  • Blending increases the complexity of the resulting product
  • Blending a faulted wine (bad wine) with a good wine will still make a bad wine
  • Blending two stable wines can result in an unstable wine
  • Always make a lab blend first!
  • Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearm
  • Major government regulatory agency of the United States wine industry
  • Sets rules and regulations from crushing of the grapes to the end product, specifically how the wine should be labeled to marketing of the wine
  • Major forms that are used are located in the ATF series 5120 (Do not mess with the BATF!)
  • Rhymes with heritage, a red or white wine blend of the Bordeaux varietals
  • In 1989, ATF approved ‘Meritage’ as a label designation
  • Use of the Meritage on label requires membership in the Meritage association
  • A limit of 25,000 cases is permitted for each type of Meritage per vintage year.
fining of wines
Fining of Wines
  • Fining is the process of removing suspended particles from wines and will sometimes be used for softening of wines of phenolic compounds
  • Common types of fining agents are Bentonite, egg whites, kieselsol and sparkoloid
  • Barrels are constructed from Oak staves from many diverse countries around the world. Primarily French and American oak barrels are used in the California wine industry
  • Common components from barrel aging wine are:
    • Nutty Clove Coffee Leather
    • Smoke Cedar Cigar Box Dusty
barrels cont
Barrels (cont.)
  • French barrels average $700 each
  • American barrels average $300 each
  • Prior to 1970’s, toasting of Oak barrels was a phenomena of the Bourbon industry not the wine industry
  • Oak species (commonly used)
    • Allier Limousin
    • American Nevers
  • Two important points of filtration are;
    • The degree of clarity desired
    • The amount of coloring and flavor lost
  • Red wines that are unfiltered are considered higher in quality
  • Pressure and flow rate are key to the filtration process
packaging cont
Packaging (cont)
  • Tip: Don’t get to caught up making your bottle to complicated that a customer gets lost.
  • Tip: Don’t put Cabernet Sauvignon in a Pinot Noir bottle or Chardonnay in a Merlot bottle. Customers do not like it. Use a Burgundy style bottle with the “dead leaf green” color for Chard.
  • Tip: Bottle quality is the most important part. Make sure the glass you use meets your standards
  • Corks; both synthetic and natural.
    • Natural cork has risk of contamination with mold and other problems i.e. over sulfured.
    • Red wine usually has longer corks.
    • Key to cork selection is size i.e. diameter of cork.
    • Can be used to market wine.
  • Screwcaps
    • Proven to be a better seal for wine bottles than corks.
    • Not generally found on “high end” wine due to poor perceived opinion by consumer. One exception: Plumpjack Winery.
  • Box Wine—(Nuff Said!!)
  • Lead bases capsules very popular until the ATF banned their use in the late 1980’s. Now wineries use tin-aluminum or aluminum polylaminate.
  • It is better to have no capsule rather than a bad one.
  • Very important part of packaging, primarily for consumer appeal.
  • Vintners should remember that it

is not what they think about their

packaging which is important. It is

only the consumer’s impression of

whether or not a package attracts their money.

labels cont
Labels (cont)
  • Remember to flaunt awards, medals, or other accolades on the label. Often vintners raise the price of award winning wines. This may slow sales, but gives that vintner status and reputation.
  • With increased margins on these wines, profits can cover sale of lower margined wines in company.
label shapes
Label Shapes
  • Odd shaped labels lead to 3 problems:
    • 1) Problems applying labels to the bottle
    • 2) Increases labeling costs due to the cost for custom cutting dies
    • 3) Significant paper waste
  • Custom labels=custom label machine parts=increased expenses!
l a b e l c o l o r s
  • Leave the integration of color and packaging to professionals!
  • This is essential when making sure your product is properly addressed towards its target market/customer.
label psychology
Label Psychology
  • The following are some common color psychology associations:
    • White: Clean, winter, delicate
    • Red: Hot, danger, stop
    • Violet: Royal, soft, expensive
    • Green: Life, summer, proceed
    • Orange: Citrus, autumn, ripe
  • Color combinations are best dealt with by professionals.
label psychology cont
Label Psychology (cont)
  • There have been many wine failures because of overdone labels.
  • Beware of underdone labels to the point of not getting the consumers attention at all.(Generally done by people ignorant of the importance of packaging)
  • Good packaging will sell a bad wine while bad packaging will leave a great wine on the shelf!