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e-Service Design

e-Service Design

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e-Service Design

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    Slide 1:MD850: e-Service Operations

    Design and Development of e-Services

    Overview Background Design and Development of Traditional Services e-Service Design e-Service Design Tools Introduction to Together Control Center

    Slide 3:Background

    Background Scenario: B2C Youre a first-time WWW entrepreneur Youve just completed your 10 page business plan product concept revenue model basic marketing plan performed your 60 second pitch in front of relatives and friends obtained significant loans from parents and friends, and borrowed up to your neck on your credit card Background Scenario: B2B Youre a supply chain manager Organizations customers need to know about the real-time status of your supply chain You want to create a supply chain that appropriately balances cost of implementation flexibility of information services provided

    Slide 6:What are you going to do?

    Background

    Background The Needed Solution Traditional Service Products Goods Services Information e-Service Service Product Goods Offline Services Digital Content = Information + Online Services Background The Resources Available Digital Networks Networks of Physical Objects (Goods, Trucks, Pallets, etc.) People Client/Server Software Objects Distributed Component Applications

    Slide 9:Background

    Several issues to deal with Issue #1: Design of service experience Motivated by customer loyalty and customer value Issue #2: Layout of service attributes Motivated by customer loyalty and customer value driven by ease of use Issue #3: Creating a process for design and redesign Motivated by customer loyalty (quality improvement) Driven by service enhancement to avoid the honeymoon effect Driven by ease of redevelopment Driven by minimization of redevelopment costs

    Slide 10:Design and Development of Traditional Services

    Slide 11:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Service Encounter Any episode in which the customer comes into contact with any aspect of the organization and gets an impression of the quality of its service. (Haksever, et al.) Includes Customer Service provider/employee Delivery system Physical evidence of the service Service attributes Service Value will be a function of all of a customers service encounters Clearly, these need to be thought through prior to actual delivery

    Slide 12:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Service Design is the design of Service Encounters Includes Development of a Service Concept Design of a system through which the Service Concept will be delivered (the Service Process) An evolutionary process Service design process has several variations Major innovations Start-up businesses New products for a currently served market Product-line extensions Product improvements Style changes

    Slide 13:Issue #3: A Process for Service Design?

    Slide 14:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Philosophies and Tools for Service Design Competitive Analysis Benchmarking Social and Environmental Awareness Concurrent Design (vs. sequential i.e, Waterfall Method) Quality Function Deployment for Services House of Quality Robust Design Design Failure Mode Analysis Poka-Yoke/Fail-Safe the Service (Schonberger & Knod, Synchroservice!, Haksever et al., Service Management and Operations)

    Slide 15:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Service Design Model Determine the direction of the development effort Formulation of new service objectives and strategy Idea generation Idea screening Design of Service Concept development Concept testing Business analysis Project authorization Service design and testing Process and system design and testing Market program design and testing Personnel training Testing of Service Service testing and pilot run Test marketing Introduction of Service Full-scale launch Post-launch review

    Slide 16:Issue #1: Design of Service Experience

    Slide 17:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Service experiences are made up of Product outcomes end result of transactions Process outcomes the manner in which product outcomes are delivered (Rust and Oliver, 1998, p. 68)

    Slide 18:Product Outcomes

    Slide 19:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Probably most knowledge about product outcomes is available from marketing researchers Affect of Colors Lighting Smells Music Customer personality/behavioral disorders Behavior of other people in the service environment Methods for choosing a portfolio of these

    Slide 20:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Principles of Service Design Know your customer Determine which of the customers needs will be satisfied You cant satisfy them all Develop a service strategy, and position the service for competitive advantage Design the service, delivery system, human resource requirements, and tangibles simultaneously Design service processes from the customers perspective and employees perspective (Haksever et al., Service Management and Operations)

    Slide 21:Design for Service Operations (instead of DFM) General Guidelines Design for target markets and target costs Minimize the number of operations Quality Guidelines Ensure that customer requirements are known; design to those requirements Ensure that process capabilities (in your firm and of your suppliers) are known; design to those capabilities Use standard procedures, materials, and processes with already known and proven quality (Schonberger & Knod, Synchroservice!, 1994)

    Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Slide 22:Process Outcomes

    Slide 23:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Generic Approaches to Service System Design Production Line Approach Limit the discretionary activities of customer Standardize the service Divide the activities of service employees and optimize for economies of scale Substitute technology for delivery people Customer as Co-Producer Approach Actively involve customer in the service delivery process Use customer labor to replace service employee labor Customer labor smoothes capacity requirements across varying service demand (Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, Service Management)

    Slide 24:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Generic Approaches to Service System Design Customer Contact Approach Understand the extent to which the customer is directly involved in/interacting with delivery of the service Separate high contact services from low contact services (focused service factories) Use high contact services as sales opportunities Information Empowerment Approach Use Information Technology to empower the employer Use Information Technology to empower the consumer (Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, Service Management)

    Slide 25:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Principles of Service Design Minimize handoffs of the customer between service delivery employees Design back room operations to support front room operations Incorporate data collection in process design Determine the extent of customer contact and customer participation during the service experience Build flexibility and robustness into the system Design employee loyalty and customer loyalty in the system Improve continuously (Haksever et al., Service Management and Operations)

    Slide 26:Design for Service Operations (instead of DFM) Operability Guidelines Design multifunctional/multiuse service elements and modules Design for ease of coupling/uncoupling Design for one-way travel dont force customers to stand in multiple waiting lines or revisit the same line (in circles) Avoid offline or misfit service elements no special steps, like server leaving the service environment to retrieve something Avoid designs requiring extraordinary attentiveness humans tend to take shortcuts, and create service quality problems (Schonberger & Knod, Synchroservice!, 1994)

    Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Slide 27:Issue #2: Layout of Service Attributes

    Slide 28:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Service Blueprints Flowchart your service design Identifies process elements and activities required to deliver your service Includes activities, flows (or materials, information, etc.), failure points, customer waiting points, line of visibility More precise than verbal descriptions of a service Provides a structured overview of the whole service system Shows processes and interactions between processes Advantage the blueprint is a conceptual model that facilitates studying the service experience prior to implementing it

    Slide 29:Traditional Service Design Person-to-Person Service

    Front Office Back Office Line of Visibility

    Slide 30:e-Service Design

    Slide 31:Issue #3: Following a Systematic Process for Designing the e-Service

    Slide 32:e-Service Design Process General Principles

    Strategies for Dealing with Turbulent Service Management Environments Modularity Architectures Interfaces Standards Flexibility Overlapping development processes Modular development processes based on complete information architecture/infrastructure Flexible product development processes that allow designers to continue to define and shape service products even after implementation has begun.

    Slide 33:e-Service Design Process General Principles

    Product development flexibility is rooted in the capability to manage the joint evolution of system architecture through product and process design. (Marco Iansiti, Shooting the Rapids: ) Change control and version control are essential, but these must be applied not only to the content itself, but to the infrastructure that produces it. (Rational, Controlling the Chaos of Web Development)

    e-Service Design Process Reference Model (Menasce and Almeida, Scaling for e-Business, 2000) Characteristics of the Business Navigational Structure & Function Patterns of Customer Behavior Site Architecture and Service Demands Business Model Functional Model Customer Model Resource Model Technological View Business View Internal Metrics External Metrics e-Service Design Process Reference Model for e-Business (Menasce and Almeida, Scaling for e-Business, 2000) Business Model situation, purpose, outcome, functions, resources, location Functional Model business processes and applications needed to accomplish the services and functions offered to customers Customer Model Customer Behavior Model Behavior-Based Workload Model Resource Model Architecture Functional Operational Infrastructure e-Service Design Process Two Complementary Approaches Characteristics of the Business Navigational Structure & Function Business Model Functional Model Service- Product Goods Services Information WWW Site Content A Network of Paths Between Pages/Objects Heim and Sinha (2000), Spiller and Lohse (1998) Menasce and Almeida (2000) e-Service Design Process Two Complementary Approaches For each, you need to Define service-product Specific attributes = {goods, services, digital content} Relative to competitor Potentially done during the writing of the business plan Relative to user needs and uses Define how the service-process must deliver the service-product Define service-process

    Slide 38:Issue #1: Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Slide 39:Product Outcomes

    Slide 40:e-Service Design Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Product Outcomes Key 1: Easy-To-Do-Business-With Thinking Be useful Dont waste their time Make everything obvious Be bandwidth-friendly Keep it simple Show them what theyve bought Give them lots of search options Encourage customers to make contact if they want help or have a question (Zemke & Connellan, e-Service, 2001)

    Slide 41:e-Service Design Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Product Outcomes Key 1: Easy-To-Do-Business-With Thinking Give consumers access to help on their terms Dont ever tell them you are too busy to respond Put a price with every product Tell them what the shipping costs will be long before they get to the checkout Tell customers how they can return items and make it simple Unless your primary audience is eight year olds, get rid of anything on the site that blinks, spins, or otherwise moves erratically

    Slide 42:e-Service Design Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Product Outcomes Key 1: Easy-To-Do-Business-With Thinking (Extra Rules for B2B) Customize the experience Save their purchase history and give them reorder options Give every B2B customer a sales rep whom they can contact Send e-mail order reminders Make participation and self-service meaningful

    Slide 43:e-Service Design Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Product Outcomes Key 4: Put Your Personality Into Every Touchpoint Key 5: Make Emotion Part of the Memory

    Slide 44:Process Outcomes

    Slide 45:e-Service Design Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Process Outcomes Key 1: Easy-To-Do-Business-With Thinking Answer every e-mail in less than a day Make it easy to navigate Easy to navigate means you can get to any page regardless of where you are on the site Have simple beneficial registration processes In the B2C space, make the checkout process fast and painless Deliver products on time (Zemke & Connellan, e-Service, 2001)

    Slide 46:e-Service Design Choosing e-Service Attributes

    Process Outcomes Key 2: Start ETDBW Below The Line of Visibility Key 3: Make Your Systems Employee- and Customer-Friendly Key 6: Built In and On Security, Speed, and Easy Navigation Key 7: Communicate Trust Through Design

    Slide 47:Issue #2: e-Service Layout

    Slide 48:e-Service Design e-Service Layout

    Layout should be driven by Usability Jakob Nielsen (useit.com) Web site is a technology substitute for real-world services think about dimensions of person-to-person service delivery observe what people do in a service delivery environment this is the service-script that people will unconsciously expect in an e-Service try to improve upon the person-to-person version Reality woefully inadequate tools search comparison filtering finding the sales desk

    Slide 49:e-Service Design Tools for Service Blueprinting

    Slide 50:e-Service Design Tools Simple Tools

    Classic Approach Envelope + Pencil + Paper Flowcharting MS Visio and many others

    Slide 51:e-Service Design Tools Open Source Tools

    XWeb (xweb.sourceforge.net) Barracuda (barracuda.enhydra.org) Site lists many Open Source competitors that accomplish similar things ArgoUML

    Slide 52:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    RationalRose C++, Java Together Control Center C++, Java, CORBA IDL, VisualBasic, VB.NET, C#(.NET) Microsoft VisualStudio.NET (Visio) VisualBasic.NET, C# Magic Draw (www.magicdraw.com) C++, Java, CORBA IDL Objecteering (www.objecteering.com) System Architect (www.popkin.com) OptimalJ (www.compuware.com/products/optimalj/)

    Slide 53:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Unified Modeling Language (UML) A language/notation for describing systems Has been used to describe Software applications Websites Enterprise architectures In many tools, several of the UML diagrams are linked directly to software coding Round Trip Engineering change the code and the UML diagram changes change the UML diagram and the code will change

    Slide 54:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    UML Round Trip Engineering

    Slide 55:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 1: Know Your Customers/Users What are their types? What are their roles? What privileges do they have? Actor/Role Hierarchy Two types Guest Registered Guest Roles of registered users Wireless User Administrator

    Slide 56:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 2: Define the e-Service Requirements Define interactions between customer and the system Agree on what you are trying to build before you build it Use-Case Diagram System boundary (yellow box) contains three use-cases Customer can use the system to Reserve a car Pick up a car Return a car

    An <<extend>> relationship indicates something that enhances the capability of the thing it points at An <<include>> relationship indicates that one use case includes the functionality of another use case A generalization relationships ( ) indicates that one use case will adhere to the properties/behavior of another use case

    Slide 58:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 3: Plan Your Screens Sketch out the rough structure of the e-Service Class Diagram A Component Diagram could also be used

    Slide 59:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 4: Choose Your Tools and Describe Your Sites Architecture Component Diagram Site will service MS IE and Netscape Delivery system contains a web server, PHP server, and database

    Slide 60:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 5: Design for the Future Identify the objects involved in the service system Identify the relationships between objects Doing this well eliminates problems when the e-Service must be modified in the future Static Structure (Class) Diagram System contains agency, cars, employees, etc. Mechanic is a type of Employee, and inherits Employee characteristics

    Slide 62:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 6: Model Your Run-Time System How do the bits and pieces fit together when the system is actually running? Collaboration Diagram 1. Customer requests 1.1 Customer verified 1.2 Start new report 1.3 Retrieve page 1.3.1 Page involves building up an HTML page

    Slide 63:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    1. Customer contacts rental agent 2. Rental agent fills in agreement 3. Customer pays deposit 4. Rental agent updates status on a rented car

    Slide 64:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Sequence Diagram How service proceeds over time Time starts at top, progresses to bottom Ex: Customer requests rental, rental agent then checks prior rental history of customer, if okay, rental agent checks whether a car is available, etc.

    Slide 66:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Statechart Diagram Describes how an object within the service system changes states as it progresses through the service Ex: car is first in stock, then goes into rental, is either returned on time or overdue, is evaluated, then cleaned and put back into service, eventually car is sold or junked

    Slide 67:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Activity Diagram Logic that occurs inside an object in the service system Ex: Rental system Checks customer record Makes a decision to rent or not If Rent Fills out agreement Has customer pay deposit Otherwise Displays refusal information

    Slide 68:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 7: Plan for Deployment How will the service system components be deployed across different resources (computers, display devices, etc.)? Component Diagram Two different types of services One server that services both of them

    Slide 70:e-Service Design Tools Computer Aided e-Service Engineering

    Step 8: Write Cohesive and Decoupled Code Keep your service system flexible by keeping the components as modular as possible Minimize the number of interactions across classes and files If the system has many complex interactions, start cutting and pasting code to separate the different components better Bad difficult to understand behaviors if you change system Good

    Slide 71:Introduction to Together Control Center

    Slide 72:Together Control Center (TCC)

    On your CD, you have An installation file containing Together Control Center A license file (license.lic) TogetherSofts tutorials and manuals for TCC (in .ZIP files) TogetherSofts tutorials and manuals in .PDF format (unzipped from the files above) Task for this week Install TCC on your computer Copy the installer file Together.exe to your hard drive Close all open applications Click the installer, and follow the directions (it is pretty much self-explanatory) Copy the license.lic file to the \bin\ directory inside of the Together directory (probably c:\Together 5.5\bin\) Start Together (Start>Programs>Together 5.5>Together) Try to work through Quick Tour 1-4 and Tutorials 1 & 2 (in PDF Files) If you get through these, you might draw a Use Case diagram for the structure of a web site you would like to model (it can be very simple)

    Slide 73:Summary

    Slide 74:Summary

    Traditional service design provides many useful ideas that can be used for e-Service design e-Service pundits have specified many requirements for the e-Service experience Desired product outcomes and process outcomes need to be turned into models for the system Service blueprints for e-Services can be created using modern CASE tools emerging in 2002 e-Service design has many better tools for designing and understanding services