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Chapters 15-16 (LeUnes): Personality and Psychological Assessment in Athletes. Psychology of Sport Oct 12-16, 2009 Classes #19-21. Personality Testing. Does one of these individuals have a better “brain type” to become an NFL QB???. He told them to draft Manning….

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chapters 15 16 leunes personality and psychological assessment in athletes

Chapters 15-16 (LeUnes):Personality and Psychological Assessment in Athletes

Psychology of Sport

Oct 12-16, 2009

Classes #19-21

personality testing
Personality Testing
  • Does one of these individuals have a better “brain type” to become an NFL QB???
he told them to draft manning
He told them to draft Manning…
  • Manning went on to become one of the best QB’s ever while Leaf has taken up golf
the science of personality
The Science of Personality
  • we are:
    • different from anyone else (uniqueness)
    • remain ourselves across situations (consistency)
  • These differencesare measurable
    • Likert Scales
    • Thurstone Scales
    • Semantic Differential scales
  • Personality research: study of measurable individual differences – but what are they?
  • Situation-free dispositions (i.e. aggregated across time) vs situationally hedged dispositions = conditional and interactive with the situations in which they are expressed(Mischel, 2004)
back to dennis
Back to Dennis...
  • Rodman and Keown (1996)
    • Ex-NBA star Dennis Rodman was always just as bubbly and eccentric on the basketball court as he has been off it
    • Seemed to remain himself across situations
is it the person or is it the situation
Is it the Person or is it the Situation?
  • Internal and External influences:
    • Internal
      • Inner personality
    • External
      • Specific situational factors
  • What's more influential insofar as prediction of a person’s behavior is concerned?
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory mmpi
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  • The MMPI is one of the most frequently used personality tests in mental health
  • The test is used by trained professionals to assist in identifying personality structure and psychopathology
raymond cattell 1905 1998
Raymond Cattell (1905-1998)
  • His definition of personality:
    • That which a predicts what a person will do at a certain situation
  • Started the actual measurement of personality
  • Developed 16 PF
    • The 16 factors are NOT orthogonal
      • Orthogonal: a unique category (factor) by itself
      • Oblique orthogonal: related with other factors
cattell s approach
Cattell’s Approach
  • Measured many different aspects of personality
  • Identified 16 “source traits” or basic dimensions of personality
  • Based on this model of personality, he created “16PF”
  • He used self-reports, observer ratings, and objective tests to help determine a person’s traits
  • Used statistics, formulas, probabilities, etc.
  • He called this his multivariate approach
personality sport
Personality & Sport
  • Compared to non-sport playing controls on 16PF, national level competitorsare (Williams, 1985):
    • higher emotional stability
    • greater mental toughness
    • more self-assured
    • more trusting
  • Getting into an Olympic squad in wrestling (Silva et al., 1985) linked to (16PF) sociability, boldness, emotional stability and apprehension
mood states and performance
Mood States and Performance
  • Morgan & Hammer (1974) - Terry (2000) better performing athletes display more positive mental states:
    • less anxious
    • less depressed
    • less fatigued
    • less confused
    • more vigorous (and extroverted)
mental h ealth p rofile
Mental Health Profile
  • Positive Mental Health Profile: (Morgan & Johnson, 1978) found lower levels of psychopathology (MMPI) in more successful University oarsmen
  • However: hardly any replication
    • e.g. Brown, Morgan & Kihlstrom (1989) found no significant associations between MMPI profiles of collegiate athletes and their athletic success
big five factors
Big Five Factors
  • Extraversion
    • Bold versus timid
    • Outgoing versus introverted
    • Talkative versus silent
  • Agreeableness
    • Friendliness versus indifference to others
    • A docile versus hostile nature
    • Compliance versus hostile noncompliance
  • Conscientiousness
    • Responsible versus irresponsible
    • Hardworking versus lazy
    • Cautious versus rash
big five factors15
Big Five Factors
  • Neuroticism
    • Adjustment versus anxiety
    • Level of Emotional stability
    • Dependence vs. independence
  • Openness
    • Reflection of an inquiring intellect
    • Flexibility versus conformity
    • Rebelliousness versus Subduedness
personality and success
Personality and success
  • Piedmont, Hill & Blanco (1999): coach ratings of performance and game stats linked to the Big Five profiles of elite soccer players:
    • Neuroticism / emotional stability
    • Conscientiousness / «will to achieve»
    • acceptance of criticism: «coachability», in turn linked to higher self-esteem
personality and success17
Personality and success
  • Piedmont, Hill & Blanco (1999)
    • Coach ratings of performance and game stats linked to the Big Five profiles of elite soccer players:
      • Neuroticism / emotional stability
      • Conscientiousness / «will to achieve»
      • Acceptance of criticism: «coachability», in turn linked to higher self-esteem
personality testing18
Personality Testing
  • Athletes do differ from non-athletes (e.g., athletes are usually more confident)
    • Why?
team sports vs individual sports
Team sports vs. Individual sports?
  • Different personalities???
slide20
POMS
  • A test designed to measure certain psychological traits. Profile Of Mood States (POMS) is a popular tool among sport psychologists who have used it to compare the prevailing moods of elite athletes and non-athletes. Six mood states are used in POMS:• tension• depression• anger• vigor• fatigue• confusion
slide21
POMS
  • Elite athletes from different sports (including runners, rowers, and wrestlers) tend to score below average for negative states such as tension, depression, fatigue, and confusion; and score well above average on vigor
  • When presented on a graph, the POMS profile for these elite athletes assumes a characteristic shape that has been called the ‘iceberg’ profile; the better the athlete, the more pronounced the profile
iceberg profile
Iceberg Profile
  • Elite athlete is viewed as mentally healthy with all negative moods falling below the population norm and vigor score falling well above the norm
    • See next slide 
iceberg profile23
Iceberg Profile
  • The iceberg profile of a successful x-c skier is formed by vigor being above the mean of the population and tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion being below the mean of the population
  • In contrast, less successful elite athletes have a flat profile, scoring at or below the 50th percentile on all psychological factors
benefits of understanding the personality profile of athletes
Benefits of Understanding the Personality Profile of Athletes
  • 1. Helps assess the fit between persons and sports and even positions on a team
  • 2. Helps athletes and coaches value their strengths and become more aware of those areas in which development may be warranted
  • 3. Helps coaches and athletes in a strained relationship analyze the source of the conflict and build a strategy to reduce it
  • 4. Can lead to motivated and committed behavior
  • 5. Useful for the athlete and sports professional in career and life planning, self-management (such as stress/time management) and interpersonal skills areas
  • 6. Many applications in team building and management training
athletic motivation inventory
Athletic Motivation Inventory
  • An inventory designed to measure personality traits thought to be related to athletic ability
  • These traits include aggression, coachability, conscience development, determination, drive, emotional control, leadership, mental toughness, responsibility, self-confidence, and trust
  • Although the inventory is much used, its ability to predict athletic success has been seriously questioned
slide26
TAIS
  • Nideffer (1976)
    • Two dimensions:
      • Attentional Width
      • Attentional Direction
slide27
TAIS
  • Broad-External
  • Broad-Internal
  • Narrow-External
  • Narrow-Internal
credits
Credits
  • http://www.americanboardofsportpsychology.org/Portals/24/APAsymp04AIDMAN.ppt#273,1,The Role of Personality in Sport: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges
  • http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/physiology/pp01.html