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Ameba: Formally Phylum Sarcodina R & J Ch 7. Protozoa with pseudopodia (or if not, distinct locomotive protoplasmic flow present). Mitochondria when present never in the form of a kinetoplasts. Without apical complex. Without axostyles. Ameboid Movement.

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ameba formally phylum sarcodina r j ch 7
Ameba: Formally Phylum SarcodinaR & J Ch 7
  • Protozoa with pseudopodia (or if not, distinct locomotive protoplasmic flow present).
  • Mitochondria when present never in the form of a kinetoplasts.
  • Without apical complex.
  • Without axostyles.
ameboid movement
Ameboid Movement
  • Ameboid locomotion is used by certain protists including parasitic amoeba.
ameba diversity
Ameba Diversity
  • Most amoebas are harmless single cell protozoans living in mud, water, and soil feeding on other protozoans and bacteria.
  • Some species are parasitic and endocommensals and are quite common inhabitants of animals.
endocommensal and parasitic ameba diversity
Endocommensal and Parasitic Ameba Diversity
  • Domestic animals
  • Birds are free
  • Reptiles  one species that is pathogenic in snakes Entamoeba invadens
  • Frogs and salamanders
  • Leeches, termites, and cockroaches
  • Hydra
  • Humans
some ameba are pathogenic
Some Ameba are Pathogenic
  • Amebiasis- The pathological condition of having an amoebic infection.
  • -iasis- “indicates a pathological condition”
entamoeba histolytica12
Entamoeba histolytica
  • One of the most important and pathogenic parasites of humans.
entamoeba histolytica13
Entamoeba histolytica
  • One of the most important and pathogenic parasites of humans.
    • Although dogs, cats and primates may be infected, these infections are rare and unimportant. This parasite is primarily a human parasite and is transmitted from human to human.
entamoeba histolytica14
Entamoeba histolytica
  • One of the most important and pathogenic parasites of humans.
    • Although dogs, cats and primates may be infected, these infections are rare and unimportant. This parasite is primarily a human parasite and is transmitted from human to human.
  • First seen in 1878 but not described until 1903.
entamoeba histolytica15
Entamoeba histolytica
  • One of the most important and pathogenic parasites of humans.
    • Although dogs, cats and primates may be infected, these infections are rare and unimportant. This parasite is primarily a human parasite and is transmitted from human to human.
  • First seen in 1878 but not described until 1903.
  • Causative agent of the disease amebiasis (old name is Amebic Dysentery).
entamoeba histolytica17
Active, feeding stage

Growing stage

Amoeboid with blunt pseudopodia

Non-foamy cytoplasm

Uninucleated; nucleus with fine peripheral chromatin granules, small central endosome

Entamoeba histolytica

Trophozoite: 20-30 µm

entamoeba histolytica19
Dormant/resistant stage

Spherical

1-4 nuclei, (4 in mature cysts)

Bluntly rounded chromatoidal bars

Entamoeba histolytica

Cyst:10-20 μm

entamoeba histolytica cysts21
Entamoeba histolytica Cysts

Uninucleate cyst Binucleate cyst

entamoeba histolytica cysts22
Entamoeba histolytica Cysts

Quadrinucleate or mature cysts

entamoeba histolytica life cycle25
Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
  • INFECTIVE STAGE: Cyst
  • Cysts are susceptible to heat (above 40 °C), freezing (below –5 °C), and drying.
entamoeba histolytica life cycle26
Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
  • INFECTIVE STAGE: Cyst
  • Cysts are susceptible to heat (above 40 °C), freezing (below –5 °C), and drying.
  • Cysts remain viable in moist environment for 1 month.
entamoeba histolytica life cycle28
CYST: ingested with fecal contaminated food or water.

Excystation occurs in the small intestine in an alkaline environment.

Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
entamoeba histolytica life cycle29
CYST: ingested with fecal contaminated food or water.

Excystation occurs in the small intestine in an alkaline environment.

Metacystic amebas emerge, divide and move down into the large intestine.

Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
entamoeba histolytica life cycle31
Trophozoites colonize the large intestine and invade the mucosa.

They live within the crypts and mucosa of the large intestinal lining.

Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
entamoeba histolytica life cycle32
Trophozoites colonize the large intestine and invade the mucosa.

They live within the crypts and mucosa of the large intestinal lining.

Trophozoites may live and multiply indefinitely within the crypts of the LI mucosa feeding on starches and mucous secretions.

Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
entamoeba histolytica life cycle33
Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
  • Cysts form in response to unfavorable (deteriorating) environmental conditions, as they move down the LI.
entamoeba histolytica life cycle34
Entamoeba histolytica Life Cycle
  • Cysts form in response to unfavorable (deteriorating) environmental conditions, as they move down the LI.
  • They are released in formed feces.
entamoeba histolytica35
Entamoeba histolytica
  • E. histolytica has surface enzymes that can digest epithelial cells and therefore hydrolyze host tissues and cause pathology.
entamoeba histolytica36
Entamoeba histolytica
  • E. histolytica has surface enzymes that can digest epithelial cells and therefore hydrolyze host tissues and cause pathology.
  • Usually the hosts’ repair of the epithelial cells can keep pace with the damage.
entamoeba histolytica37
Entamoeba histolytica
  • E. histolytica has surface enzymes that can digest epithelial cells and therefore hydrolyze host tissues and cause pathology.
  • Usually the hosts’ repair of the epithelial cells can keep pace with the damage.
  • However, when the host is stressed, has too much HCl, or a high bacterial flora, the digestion will be ahead of repair.
entamoeba histolytica pathology
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology

1. A Primary Ulcer Can Occur.

entamoeba histolytica pathology39
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology

1. A Primary Ulcer Can Occur.

Flask Shaped Ulcers

entamoeba histolytica pathology40
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology

1. A Primary Ulcer Can Occur.

A primary ulcer can cause rupturing of the bowel and can cause Peritonitis.

slide41

Shows movement of trophozoites from large intestine to liver via hepatic portal vein.

Liver Abscesses

entamoeba histolytica pathology42
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology
  • Extra-Intestinal Lesions and Abscess Occurs
entamoeba histolytica pathology43
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology
  • Extra-Intestinal Lesions and Abscess Occurs
  • A. Hepatic Amebiasis
entamoeba histolytica pathology44
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology
  • Extra-Intestinal Lesions and Abscess Occurs
  • A. Hepatic Amebiasis
  • B. Pulmonary Amebiasis
entamoeba histolytica pathology45
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology
  • Extra-Intestinal Lesions and Abscess Occurs
  • A. Hepatic Amebiasis
  • B. Pulmonary Amebiasis
  • C. Cerebral Amebiasis
entamoeba histolytica pathology46
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology
  • Frequently, intestinal lesions will heal themselves.
entamoeba histolytica pathology47
Entamoeba histolytica Pathology
  • Frequently, intestinal lesions will heal themselves.
  • Two exceptions- External ulcers that did not come from the intestine.

Ocular amebiasis

Genital amebiasis

symptoms
Symptoms
  • 10% of people in the world infected with ameba, but only 3% ever have some sort of clinical signs.
symptoms50
Symptoms
  • 10% of people in the world infected with ameba, but only 3% ever have some sort of clinical signs.
  • Abdominal discomfort.
symptoms51
Symptoms
  • 10% of people in the world infected with ameba, but only 3% ever have some sort of clinical signs.
  • Abdominal discomfort.
  • Intense pain localized on the right side.
symptoms52
Symptoms
  • 10% of people in the world infected with ameba, but only 3% ever have some sort of clinical signs.
  • Abdominal discomfort.
  • Intense pain localized on the right side.
  • Dysentery.
so how bad is this
So How Bad is This?
  • In theory, ingestion of 1 cyst could kill you.
  • In practice, probably it will never happen.
prognosis
Prognosis
  • 90% of time recovery.

- How much damage.

- Body will repair itself but this repaired

connective tissue in bowel will not

function.

diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Fecal smear/Nested PCR and monoclonal antibody methods.
  • Biopsy.
  • Serological/Immunological tests (ELISA).
seriousness of diagnosis
Seriousness of Diagnosis
  • Could expose someone to unnecessary treatment.
  • Will not be treating the real problem.
  • There is an expense.
  • Time factor.
treatment
Treatment
  • Current drug of choice  Metronidazole (Flagyl).
  • Side effects: Insomnia, headaches, vomiting, intense vasodilation, mutations on bacteria, and carcinogenic in mice.
epidemiology
Epidemiology
  • How an infectious organism spreads through a population.
entamoeba histolytica59
Entamoeba histolytica

DISTRIBUTION - Parasite has worldwide distribution but is most common in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world.

entamoeba histolytica60
Entamoeba histolytica

DISTRIBUTION - Parasite has worldwide distribution but is most common in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world.

 - it is estimated that up to 500 million people may be affected.

 - may cause up to 100,000 deaths each year.

entamoeba histolytica61
Entamoeba histolytica

DISTRIBUTION - Parasite has worldwide distribution but is most common in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world.

 - it is estimated that up to 500 million people may be affected.

 - may cause up to 100,000 deaths each year.

PREVALENCE: < 1% in Canada and Alaska

0.9% in U.S.

40% in the tropics

entamoeba histolytica62
Entamoeba histolytica
  • A number of outbreaks have resulted from a breakdown in sanitation or behavioral practices of people.
entamoeba histolytica63
Entamoeba histolytica
  • A number of outbreaks have resulted from a breakdown in sanitation or behavioral practices of people.
  • Outbreak in 1933 World's Fair in Chicago caused by defective plumbing (cross connections between water lines and sewer lines) caused over 1,000 cases of amebiasis resulting in 58 deaths.
entamoeba histolytica64
Entamoeba histolytica
  • A number of outbreaks have resulted from a breakdown in sanitation or behavioral practices of people.
  • Outbreak in 1933 World's Fair in Chicago caused by defective plumbing (cross connections between water lines and sewer lines) caused over 1,000 cases of amebiasis resulting in 58 deaths.
  • Outbreak in the late 1970’s in New York City among gay men.