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Education 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) Why focus on education? Education is one of the key enablers of demographic change, family welfare, and better health and nutrition Achievement of universal primary education a key goal of Indian planning since Independence

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education

Education

2005-06 National Family Health Survey

(NFHS-3)

why focus on education
Why focus on education?
  • Education is one of the key enablers of demographic change, family welfare, and better health and nutrition
  • Achievement of universal primary education a key goal of Indian planning since Independence
  • Elimination of gender disparity in primary education is one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG4)
  • The spread of higher education is going to be key to sustaining the growth of the Indian economy
questions explored
Questions Explored
  • Current School Attendance
    • Are children attending school?
    • Are children attending school at an age-appropriate level?
  • Literacy: Are we anywhere near universal literacy?
  • Educational attainment: What is the level and trend in higher education?
  • A curriculum note: Is there approval for the teaching of family life education in school?
slide4

ARE CHILDREN ATTENDING SCHOOL?

Reference school year: 2005-06

what percentage of children age 6 17 years attended school in 2005 06
What percentage of children age 6-17 years attended school in 2005-06?

By residence……..

And by age (yrs)

gender differentials in school attendance by residence
Gender Differentials in School Attendance by Residence

In urban areas, gender disparity in school enrollment is negligible; but in rural India, gender disparity in school enrollment persists and increases sharply with age

school attendance rates by sex and state in urban areas
School Attendance Rates by Sex and State in Urban Areas
  • 5 states with less than 75% of boys attending school in urban areas are: Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar
  • The differential in school attendance is highest at 9 percentage points in Haryana
  • In several states, girls are more likely to be in school than boys
gender differentials in school attendance are much higher in rural than in urban area
Gender differentials in school attendance are much higher in rural than in urban area
  • 11 states where 75% or fewer boys are in school, compared with 22 states where 75% or less girls are in school
  • In Kerala, Delhi, Sikkim, Nagaland and Meghalaya more girls than boys are in school
  • Gender differentials are 15-24 points in Rajasthan, Bihar, and Jharkhand; and 10 -14 points in Andhra Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Orissa, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh
age appropriate school attendance
Age-Appropriate School Attendance

Measured by estimating the net attendance rates (NAR) and gross attendance rates (GAR) for primary and secondary school-age population

For primary school

NAR: Children age 6-10 years in classes1-5 as a proportion of all children age 6-10 years

GAR: All children in classes 1-5 as a proportion of all children age 6-10 years

For secondary school

NAR: Children age 11-17 years in classes 6-12 divided by all children age 11-17 years

GAR: All children in classes 6-12 divided by all children age 11-17 years

slide11
NAR:Persistent gender inequality in rural areas and high drop out by the secondary level for boys and for girls

Percent

PRIMARY NAR

SECONDARY NAR

literacy how close are we to achieving universal literacy
Literacy: How close are we to achieving universal literacy?
  • Every woman and man age 15-49 who had not completed class 6 years was asked to read a sentence from a preprinted card.
  • Sentences were available in all major languages of each state
  • In NFHS-3, persons are considered literate if
    • They have completed at least class six, or
    • They can read a whole or part of a sentence
slide13
Literacy among women has doubled in 30 years; however, even among the youngest one-fourth of women and one-tenth of men are illiterate

Percent who are literate

the poorest women and scheduled tribe women and men are least likely to be literate
The poorest women and scheduled-tribewomen and men are least likely to be literate

Percent literate

Residence

Caste/tribe

Wealth index

slide15

Male literacy rates are 70+% in all states except Jharkhand. In 6 states including the most populous states, less than half of women 15-49 years of age are literate

slide17
Is India prepared to take on the challenge to sustain an economic growth rate of 8% or more per annum?

Percent with at least 10 complete years of schooling

slide18

A Note for School Curricula:

Is there approval for the teaching of family life education in school?

measuring the acceptance of the teaching of family life topics in school
Measuring the Acceptance of the Teaching of Family-Life Topics in School
  • NFHS-3 asked all women and men age 15-49 whether they think that the following topics should be taught to children in school:
    • Moral values
    • Changes in the body at puberty (including menstruation)
    • Sex and sexual behaviour
    • Contraception
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Condom use to avoid sexually transmitted diseases
  • Persons who said that the topic should be taught in school were asked at what age the topic should be first introduced
  • All questions were asked separately with reference to girls and boys
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Universal primary school attendance is attainable in the short run, but only in urban areas
  • In rural areas, one in five children age 6-10 is not attending school with a persistent gender gap
  • Drop-out rates between primary and secondary school are very high for both girls and boys, though the gender gap also widens considerably
  • With no more than one in five adults with 10+ years of education, education will be a major bottleneck for sustained economic growth in India
  • There is widespread support among both women and men for teaching most family life education topics in school