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Stratigraphy. Principles of Stratigraphy Types of Stratigraphy Contacts Unconformities. Text: Manual p. 29-35. Stratigraphy. “Stratigraphy can be defined as the complete triumph of terminology over facts and common sense.”

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Stratigraphy

  • Principles of Stratigraphy

  • Types of Stratigraphy

  • Contacts

  • Unconformities

Text: Manual p. 29-35


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Stratigraphy

“Stratigraphy can be defined as the complete triumph of terminology over facts and common sense.”

Attributed to P.D. Krynine by J. Ferm in Burton et al., 1987.


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Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy: the study of the 3-D spatial and temporal relationships among rocks


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Stratigraphy

  • Principles of Stratigraphy

  • Types of Stratigraphy

  • Contacts

  • Unconformities

Text: Manual p. 29-35


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Principles of Stratigraphy

1. Superposition

The oldest rocks are found on the bottom and the youngest rocks on the top.

youngest

oldest


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Principles of Stratigraphy

youngest?

oldest?



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Principles of Stratigraphy

2. Original Horizontality

sediments are deposited at the earth’s surface in flat layers




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Principles of Stratigraphy

3. Lateral Continuity

a bed will extend laterally until:

  • Pinches out.

  • Abuts against older rock.

  • Truncated by erosion.

  • Cut by fault.



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Principles of Stratigraphy

4. Cross-Cutting Relationships

Rock that are cut by another geologic feature are older than the feature that cuts them.

Igneous

Intrusion

Fault

Erosion


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B

A

Principles of Stratigraphy

5. Rule of Inclusions

If pieces of rock A are included in rock B, rock A formed before rock B.


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Principles of Stratigraphy

6. Faunal Succession

Systematic sequence of fossils with time. Extinct fossils do not reappear in younger rocks.

http://www.geo.utexas.edu/courses/401/


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Stratigraphy

  • Principles of Stratigraphy

  • Types of Stratigraphy

  • Contacts

  • Unconformities

Text: Manual p. 29-35


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Types of Stratigraphy

Type

Subdivisions

Property



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Types of Stratigraphy

Type

Subdivisions

Property


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Types of Stratigraphy - Lithostratigraphy

Super Group

Group

*Formation

Member / Tongue / Lentil

Bed / Flow

*Formation: distinct, mappable rock body with definable boundaries


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Types of Stratigraphy

Lithostratigraphic Units

lens / lentil

(E. McBride)


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Stratigraphy

  • Principles of Stratigraphy

  • Types of Stratigraphy

  • Contacts

  • Unconformities

Text: Manual p. 29-35


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Types of Contacts

  • Intrusive

  • Fault

  • Depositional

    • Conformable Contact

    • Unconformity


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Lateral Contacts

Types of Contacts (Depositional)

intercalated

Vertical Contacts

gradual

gradation

abrupt

intertonguing

pinchout

(Boggs, p. 453)


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Types of Contacts (Depositional)

Lateral Contacts

(E. McBride)


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Stratigraphy

  • Principles of Stratigraphy

  • Types of Stratigraphy

  • Contacts

  • Unconformities

Text: Manual p. 29-35


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vs

Hiatus: amount of missing time

vs

Diastem: small amount of missing rock / time

Unconformities

Unconformity: buried surface of erosion; missing rock / time


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Unconformities

Erosion – Mechanical, Chemical, Biological

Drop in Sea Level

Uplift of Land


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Unconformities

Calvert Bluff / Alluvium Contact (Field Trip 1)


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Unconformities

  • Types:

  • Disconformity

  • Paraconformity

  • Nonconformity

  • Angular Unconformity


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Unconformities

  • Disconformity – sediments on sediments (same orientation) with obvious erosion


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20 million years

150 million years

Unconformities

Disconformity

Supai Group

Redwall Limestone

Muav Limestone


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Unconformities

2. Paraconformity – sediments on sediments (same orientation)

no obvious erosion surface

(Boggs, p. 456)


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Unconformities

3. Angular unconformity – sediments on sediments (different orientations)


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250 million years

Unconformities

Angular Unconformity


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Unconformities

Angular Unconformity

Wyoming


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Unconformities

Angular Unconformity

(E. McBride)


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Unconformities

4. Nonconformity – sediments on crystalline igneous or metamorphic rocks

Uplift, Erosion, Deposition

Erosional Surface


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Unconformities

Nonconformity

550 million years

1800 million years


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Canadian Shield

Enchanted Rock

Unconformities

Nonconformity in Progress