Process Mapping

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Process Mapping. BA 339 Mellie Pullman. Objectives. Service Process Differences Little’s Law Process Analysis &amp; Mapping. Measuring Process Flows. Capacity of a system = capacity of the most constraining resource. We also called it a ‘bottleneck.’

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Process Mapping

BA 339

Mellie Pullman

Objectives
• Service Process Differences
• Little’s Law
• Process Analysis & Mapping
Measuring Process Flows
• Capacity of a system = capacity of the most constraining resource.
• We also called it a ‘bottleneck.’
• The flow rate of a process is the minimum of:
• Supply rate
• Demand rate
• Capacity rate
Example: Bank Clearing House

1000 checks/hour

Sort Checks

by Bank

800 checks/hour

Ship Checks

1200 checks/hour

• What is the capacity of the system to process checks?
Measuring Process Flows
• Little’s Law
• Relates number of items in the system to arrival rate and length of time in the system.
• Formula:

I = T x R

I = average number in the system

T = average throughput time

R = average flow rate into the process

• Assumes system is in a ‘steady state’
Example: Bank Clearing House

1000 checks/hour

Sort Checks

by Bank

800 checks/hour

Ship Checks

1200 checks/hour

• If the rate of checks into the system is 600 checks per hour (supply), what is the flow rate?
• There is an average of 200 checks in the system, what is the throughput time of checks?
• How can we reduce the throughput time of checks?
Applications of Little’s Law
• Manufacturing
• Waiting lines
• Invoice processing
• Legal office transactions
• Accounts receivable processing
• Restaurant & Theme Park Design
• Many others!!!!
Sell-by-Dating for Fresh Beverages
• Your store sells 20 bottles of “Fresh Local Beverage” per day,
• The producer says that product has a shelf life of 30 days (your warehouse & store),
• What is the maximum inventory that you should hold to insure fresh beverages?
Process Flow Mapping & Analysis
• Purpose: to describe a process visually to find ways of improving the current process.
• Find repetitive operations
• Identify bottlenecks
• Describe directions and distances of flows (people, material and information)
• Create better value & reduce waste
Detailed Process Map

Identifies the specific activities that make up the process. Basic steps are:

Identify the entity that will serve as your focal point:

• Customer?
• Order or item?

Identify clear boundaries, starting and ending points, and line of visibility between customer and order.

Keep it simple

• Does this detail add any insight?
• Do we need to map every exception condition?

Transportation

Operations

Process

Input

Output

Delays

Storage

Inspections

Classifying Processes
Mapping Symbols

or

Inspection

Decision point (typically requires a “yes” or “no”)

Document or order created

Delay

Storage

Move Materials or employees activity

• Work that contributes what your customers want out of your product or service
• Cooking a meal
• Measuring & Cutting Material
• Assembling
• Does it meet these criteria?
• Adds a desired function, form, or feature to the product or service
• Enables a competitive advantage (reduced price, faster delivery, fewer defects)
• Includes an activity that a customer would be willing to pay for or would not prefer our competitors is he/she knew we did this task.
• Activities that your customer doesn’t want to pay for (it does not increase value in their eyes) but are required for some reason
• Accounting, legal, regulatory
• Is task required by law or regulation?
• Does task reduce financial/liability risk?
• Does task support financial requirements?
• Does process break down if task is removed?
• Work that does not add value in the eyes of the customer and that they would not want to pay for it (nor is it required for BNVA)
• Rework, multiple signatures & copies, counting, handling, inspecting, set-up, downtime, transporting, moving, delaying, storage.
Process Chart (supplements Map)

O= operations; I= inspections; S= storage; D=delay;

TP= transportation of people

TI= transportation of inventory or materials

Linking Processes to Value with Metrics
• Possible Measures or Metrics:
• Link desired customer value to process
• Time (measure distance traveled and task time)
• Cost
• Quality
• Flexibility
• Sustainability
• Set standards
• Guide design of new or redesign of existing process
Process Flow Analysis Might Change:
• Raw materials
• Product (output) design
• Job design
• Processing steps used
• Management control information
• Equipment or tools
• Suppliers
• i.e. Anything but customers may be changed!!
Steps in process flow analysisusing the systems approach
• Select a process to study
• Find a group of “different eyes” to analyze & improve the system
• Decide on the objectives of the analysis
• improve cost, quality, flexibility, responsiveness (service), sustainability (ergonomics, recycling, reduce energy)
• Define customers and suppliers
• Flowchart the existing transformation process
• Develop improved process design
• Implement the new process design
Questions to ask to improve process flow
• Whatdoes thecustomer need?, operations are necessary? Can some operations be eliminated, combined, or simplified?….
• Whois performing the job? Can the operation be redesigned to use less skill or less labor? Can operations be combined to enrich jobs? ….
• Whereis each operation conducted? Can layout be improved? ….
• Whenis each operation performed? Is there excessive delay or storage? Are some operations creating bottlenecks? …..
• Howis the operation done? Can better methods, procedures, or equipment be used? ….
• Do a process flow diagram and process chart for Pizza Delivery (show operator & customer perspectives)