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Process Mapping. BA 339 Mellie Pullman. Objectives. Service Process Differences Little’s Law Process Analysis & Mapping. Measuring Process Flows. Capacity of a system = capacity of the most constraining resource. We also called it a ‘bottleneck.’

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process mapping

Process Mapping

BA 339

Mellie Pullman

  • Service Process Differences
  • Little’s Law
  • Process Analysis & Mapping
measuring process flows
Measuring Process Flows
  • Capacity of a system = capacity of the most constraining resource.
    • We also called it a ‘bottleneck.’
  • The flow rate of a process is the minimum of:
    • Supply rate
    • Demand rate
    • Capacity rate
example bank clearing house
Example: Bank Clearing House

Receive Checks

1000 checks/hour

Sort Checks

by Bank

800 checks/hour

Ship Checks

1200 checks/hour

  • What is the capacity of the system to process checks?
measuring process flows5
Measuring Process Flows
  • Little’s Law
    • Relates number of items in the system to arrival rate and length of time in the system.
    • Formula:

I = T x R

I = average number in the system

T = average throughput time

R = average flow rate into the process

  • Assumes system is in a ‘steady state’
example bank clearing house6
Example: Bank Clearing House

Receive Checks

1000 checks/hour

Sort Checks

by Bank

800 checks/hour

Ship Checks

1200 checks/hour

  • If the rate of checks into the system is 600 checks per hour (supply), what is the flow rate?
  • There is an average of 200 checks in the system, what is the throughput time of checks?
  • How can we reduce the throughput time of checks?
applications of little s law
Applications of Little’s Law
  • Manufacturing
  • Waiting lines
  • Invoice processing
  • Legal office transactions
  • Accounts receivable processing
  • Restaurant & Theme Park Design
  • Many others!!!!
sell by dating for fresh beverages
Sell-by-Dating for Fresh Beverages
  • Your store sells 20 bottles of “Fresh Local Beverage” per day,
  • The producer says that product has a shelf life of 30 days (your warehouse & store),
  • What is the maximum inventory that you should hold to insure fresh beverages?
process flow mapping analysis
Process Flow Mapping & Analysis
  • Purpose: to describe a process visually to find ways of improving the current process.
    • Find repetitive operations
    • Identify bottlenecks
    • Describe directions and distances of flows (people, material and information)
    • Create better value & reduce waste
detailed process map
Detailed Process Map

Identifies the specific activities that make up the process. Basic steps are:

Identify the entity that will serve as your focal point:

  • Customer?
  • Order or item?

Identify clear boundaries, starting and ending points, and line of visibility between customer and order.

Keep it simple

  • Does this detail add any insight?
  • Do we need to map every exception condition?
classifying processes









Classifying Processes
mapping symbols
Mapping Symbols


Operation (task or work activity)


Decision point (typically requires a “yes” or “no”)

Document or order created



Move Materials or employees activity

distinguish between value add and non value add process step
Distinguish between Value-Add and Non Value-Add Process Step
  • Value Add (VA)
  • Business Non-value-add (BNVA)
  • Non-value-add (NVA)
value add steps
Value Add Steps
  • Work that contributes what your customers want out of your product or service
    • Cooking a meal
    • Measuring & Cutting Material
    • Assembling
  • Does it meet these criteria?
    • Adds a desired function, form, or feature to the product or service
    • Enables a competitive advantage (reduced price, faster delivery, fewer defects)
    • Includes an activity that a customer would be willing to pay for or would not prefer our competitors is he/she knew we did this task.
business non value add
Business Non-Value Add
  • Activities that your customer doesn’t want to pay for (it does not increase value in their eyes) but are required for some reason
    • Accounting, legal, regulatory
  • Is task required by law or regulation?
  • Does task reduce financial/liability risk?
  • Does task support financial requirements?
  • Does process break down if task is removed?
non value add
Non-value Add
  • Work that does not add value in the eyes of the customer and that they would not want to pay for it (nor is it required for BNVA)
    • Rework, multiple signatures & copies, counting, handling, inspecting, set-up, downtime, transporting, moving, delaying, storage.
process chart supplements map
Process Chart (supplements Map)

O= operations; I= inspections; S= storage; D=delay;

TP= transportation of people

TI= transportation of inventory or materials

linking processes to value with metrics
Linking Processes to Value with Metrics
  • Possible Measures or Metrics:
    • Link desired customer value to process
      • Time (measure distance traveled and task time)
      • Cost
      • Quality
      • Flexibility
      • Sustainability
    • Set standards
    • Guide design of new or redesign of existing process
process flow analysis might change
Process Flow Analysis Might Change:
  • Raw materials
  • Product (output) design
  • Job design
  • Processing steps used
  • Management control information
  • Equipment or tools
  • Suppliers
  • i.e. Anything but customers may be changed!!
steps in process flow analysis using the systems approach
Steps in process flow analysisusing the systems approach
  • Select a process to study
  • Find a group of “different eyes” to analyze & improve the system
  • Decide on the objectives of the analysis
    • improve cost, quality, flexibility, responsiveness (service), sustainability (ergonomics, recycling, reduce energy)
  • Define customers and suppliers
  • Flowchart the existing transformation process
  • Develop improved process design
  • Implement the new process design
questions to ask to improve process flow
Questions to ask to improve process flow
  • Whatdoes thecustomer need?, operations are necessary? Can some operations be eliminated, combined, or simplified?….
  • Whois performing the job? Can the operation be redesigned to use less skill or less labor? Can operations be combined to enrich jobs? ….
  • Whereis each operation conducted? Can layout be improved? ….
  • Whenis each operation performed? Is there excessive delay or storage? Are some operations creating bottlenecks? …..
  • Howis the operation done? Can better methods, procedures, or equipment be used? ….
in class exercise process flow diagrams value adding activities
In Class Exercise:Process Flow Diagrams & Value-adding activities
  • Do a process flow diagram and process chart for Pizza Delivery (show operator & customer perspectives)
  • Evaluate value-adding and non-value adding activities (V,B,N). Justify your decision.
  • How would you modify or delete

non-value added activities?