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Process Mapping. John R. Grout Berry College Campbell School of Business Mount Berry, Georgia 30149-5024 jgrout@campbell.berry.edu Voice: (706) 238-7877 Fax: (706) 238-7854. Outline. Processes Intro to process mapping Why process mapping? Process Attributes Design emphasis

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process mapping
Process Mapping

John R. Grout

Berry College

Campbell School of Business

Mount Berry, Georgia 30149-5024

jgrout@campbell.berry.edu

Voice: (706) 238-7877

Fax: (706) 238-7854

outline
Outline
  • Processes
  • Intro to process mapping
  • Why process mapping?
    • Process Attributes
    • Design emphasis
    • Process FMEA prerequisite
    • Complexity or difficulty
  • Who manages the process?
  • Caveats
  • More on process mapping
a definition of process
A definition of “process”
  • “A collection of interrelated work tasks,
  • Initiated in response to an event
  • Achieving a specific result for the customer and other stakeholders of the process.”

Source: Sharp and Mc Dermott Workflow Modeling 2001

processes
Processes
  • Customer = recipient or beneficiary of result produced by the process.
  • Interrelated = the completion of one task initiates the next task in the process.
  • A triggering event, which involves the customer, marks the start of the process.
  • Achieving the specific result for the customer

marks the end of the process.

processes are supported by enablers
Processes are supported by enablers
  • Workflow design
  • Information technology
  • Motivation and measurement
  • Human resources
  • Policies and rules
  • Facilities
sub processes
Sub-processes
  • A process can be made up of processes, often called sub-processes
  • Defining “the process” and its boundaries depends on your perspective
  • The event that initiates a process could be part of a larger process.
process vs task
Process vs. Task
  • Everyday usage: no universal distinction
  • For our purposes:
    • Processes involve more than one person, coordinated effort is required.
    • Tasks involve one person

Theory of ones:

Every process must be justified --

why can’t the result be achieved in one

activity, by one person, at one time?

Source: Harrington, Business Process Improvement Workbook

process maps
Process maps
  • A graphical presentation that document the tasks and other aspects of processes
  • Familiar version know as flow charting
  • Numerous formats or approaches exist
  • 2 versions of a process map are common:
    • As-is: the current state of the process
    • To-be: the goal state of the process
  • Widely used. Not widely researched.
process mapping basics
Process Mapping Basics
  • Arrows and Icons
  • Lots of approaches
  • Best for Medicine?

consult

consult

consult

consult

appt

Mammo

gram

Phys-

ical

Patient

General

Practitioner

appt

Phys-

ical

consult

Rec’v

Radiology

send

Mammo

gram

Dev-

elop

appt

appt

Consult

Sched/

orders

Surgeon

Sched/

orders

Hospital

Error #1

Pathology

Radiological

Oncologist

Consult

Medical

Oncologist

Consult

Physical

therapist

likely results of process mapping
Likely results of process mapping
  • Increased understanding of process,
  • Increase consensus about the process,
  • Increased visibility into the process.

Those who assume they know the process,

without having mapped it, will probably find

surprises when they map the process.

dimensions of process mapping approaches
Dimensions of process mapping approaches
  • Level of detail
  • Multi layered (Nested or Hierarchical?)
  • Multiple types of flows
  • Shows hand-offs (organizational structure)
  • Icons
  • Logical operators
  • Flow time
  • User support information
identifying risks and hazards caveats
Identifying risks and hazards:Caveats
  • “In some cases, it is easier for customers to define the business process because they are the only one who see it all.” (Sharp & McDermott)
  • From customer’s perspective, the process may often involve multiple sub-processes.
  • Optimal sub-processes will not result in optimal customer processes
identifying risks and hazards caveats13
Identifying risks and hazards:Caveats
  • Optimization of sub-processes usually leads to suboptimization of processes*
  • Sub-processes should be designed to contribute to global optimality.
  • Carefully crafted sub-optimal (“inefficient”) sub-processes will be required for optimal customer outcomes

*Goldratt, The Goal, North River Press 1984

process mapping flowchart
Process MappingFlowchart

Books on the subject:

Galloway, Dianne (1994) Mapping Work Processes, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: ASQ Quality Press.

Harrington, H. James, Esseling, Erik K. C., and Van Nimwegen, Harm (1997) Business Process Improvement Workbook New York: McGraw-Hill.

Damelio, Robert (1996) The Basics of Process Mapping, Portland, Oregon: Productivity Inc

process mapping top down process map
Process Mapping:Top-Down Process Map
  • Sub-processes are listed under each major process
  • Minimal graphics – could be text-only indenting sub-processes in an outline format

Books on the subject:

Wilson, Ray W. and Harsin, Paul (1998) Process Mastering: How to Establish and Document the Best Known Way to Do a Job. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Inc.

process mapping top down flow chart
Process Mapping:Top-Down Flow Chart

5

4

2

3

1

PSA test

ordered

PSA test

ordered

PSA test

ordered

PSA test

ordered

PSA test

ordered

  • Subprocesses
  • Telephone
  • Visit setup
  • Result
  • Subprocesses
  • Report Received
  • Subprocesses
  • ID patient
  • Select proper equip
  • Draw blood
  • Label
  • Subprocesses
  • Review
  • Centrifuge
  • Verify calibration
  • Run QC
  • Run sample
  • Report results
  • Enter in CPRS
  • Subprocesses
  • Order Written
  • Entered in CPRS
  • Received in lab

DeRosier et al. joint commission Journal on Quality Improvement (28)5: 248-267.

process mapping idef0

(information)

Process #

Sub-process

reference #

(tools & equipment)

Process MappingIDEF0

Pronounced “eye-def zero”

Meaning boxes and arrows:

Source: http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/by-num.htm

process mapping idef018

General

Detailed

Process MappingIDEF0
  • Nested or Hierarchical Diagrams

Source: FIPS 183 available at http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/by-num.htm

process mapping idef019

Web-based example

Process MappingIDEF0

Books on the subject:

Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)183: Integration Definition for Function Modeling (IDEF0) http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/by-num.htm

Hunt, Daniel V. (1996) Process Mapping: How to Reengineer Your Business Processes, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

process mapping swimlanes
Process MappingSwimlanes

Books on the subject:

Sharp, Alec, and McDermott, Patrick (2001) Workflow Modeling: Tools for Process Improvement and Application Development, Boston: Artech House.

Frazier, Jane C. (2001) Swimlane Process Mapping, Walnut Creek, CA: Frazier Technologies, Inc. (www.fraziertech.com)

Jacka, J. Mike and Keller, Paulette J. (2001) Business Process Mapping: Improving Customer Satisfaction New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Flowchart superimposed on a grid

Grid rows are organizations, departments, functions, or individuals

Grid columns are chronological

Team or joint activities indicated by boxes

process mapping swimlanes susan s lumpectomy
Process MappingSwimlanes: Susan’s Lumpectomy

consult

consult

consult

consult

appt

Mammo

gram

Phys-

ical

Patient

General

Practitioner

appt

Phys-

ical

consult

Rec’v

Radiology

send

Mammo

gram

Dev-

elop

appt

appt

Consult

Sched

orders

Surgeon

Sched

orders

Hospital

Error #1

Pathology

Radiological

Oncologist

Consult

Medical

Oncologist

Consult

Physical

therapist

process mapping swimlanes susan s lumpectomy22
Process MappingSwimlanes: Susan’s Lumpectomy

treat

Pre-

admit

Surg-

ery

Consult

treat

Consult

Request

report

Study

report

Patient

General

Practitioner

Radiology

Surg-

ery

Surgeon

Error #1 caught

by patient

Pre-

admit

Surg-

ery

Hospital

send

Pathology

Rec’v

samp

Anal-

yze

Type

up

Radiological

Oncologist

Error #2

Consult

treat

Plan

treat

Medical

Oncologist

Plan

treat

Consult

Physical

therapist

Error #2 caught

By patient

Consult

treat

treat

process mapping value stream mapping
Process MappingValue Stream Mapping

Rother, Mike and Shook, John (1999) Learning to See, Brookline, MA: Lean Enterprises Institute Inc.

Tapping, Don, Shuker, Tom and Luyster, Tom (2002) Value Stream Management Productivity Press.

process mapping value stream mapping24

As tasks are linked into

“one-piece flow” they

are combined on the map

Process MappingValue Stream Mapping

Ordering and

Scheduling info

Production task &

Inventory info

Includes information

On elapsed time

process mapping value stream mapping25
Process MappingValue Stream Mapping
  • 24 icon set for lean manufacturing