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Post WWI and the Roaring 20’s. Nativism Rises as a Result of Post WWI Anxiety. Nativism- desire to protect “Old Stock” Americans from immigrants and those that possess other differences Causes Inflation and economic Recession which resulted from Demobilization of WWI.

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Nativism Rises as a Result of Post WWI Anxiety

  • Nativism- desire to protect “Old Stock” Americans from immigrants and those that possess other differences

  • Causes

    • Inflation and economic Recession which resulted from Demobilization of WWI.

    • Racial/ Ethnic tensions grow as white boys began competing for Jobs filled by minorities and immigrants during the war.

    • Russian Revolution led to fear of Communists(Red Scare)

    • Economic turmoil leads to worker strikes- strikes seen as “communist”

    • Immigration -By 1921 Immigration levels had risen to pre-war levels but most came from Eastern and Southern Europe instead of Western Europe Many brought different ideas, cultural norms with them.

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Demobilization leads to economic turmoil

  • Demobilization- the return to a peacetime economy

  • Government agencies let go of their controls on Industry

    • Businesses raised prices they had been forced to keep low during the war

      -demand for consumer goods outsripped supply leading to the ________ in prices. (cost of living doubled)

  • Effects: Rapid inflation- the lowering of the value of money.

    • If prices for the cost of living go up your money buys you less.

  • During the war, industries were forced to raise wages (concessions given to workers) inflation caused workers to lose their economic gains.

  • Inflation caused operating costs for companies to rise- employers wanted to keep wages low.

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Demobilization leads to economic turmoil Cont.

  • Post War Recession

  • Government cancelled about $2 billion in war contracts. (heavy industry)

  • Factories responded by cutting back production and laying off workers.

  • Farm Crisis- American farmers were expanding to produce food for European markets during the war – When Europe began producing their own food demand dropped- Farmers lost land.

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Economic Turmoil leads to Racial Tensions

  • The Great Migration- 300,000-500,000 AA move to North during war to fill jobs.

  • Post war- job Competition/economic turmoil led to race riots

    • 1919 race riots broke out in over 20 Northern cities.

    • Chicago- black boy swam onto beach restricted to whites, Whites allegedly stoned boy-he drowned.

      Violence spread to South

    • 1921- Tulsa Riot

    • 1923- Rosewood

      • See video Clip

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Inflation leads to Strikes

  • Labor strikes seen as “communist”

  • Seattle General Strike (1919) – all workers not just workers from one industry.

  • The Steel Strike – 350,000 steelworkers, higher pay, shorter hours and union recognition.

    • Company broke up strike by using anti-immigrant feelings to divide workers.

  • The Boston Police Strike (1919) – 75% of the Boston police force went on strike. All the men were fired.

    • Calvin Coolidge MA governor “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.”

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The Red Scare 1919-1920

  • Russian Revolution leads to fear of communism (1919- creation of Communist International)

  • Worker strikes added to fear of possible communist plot.(other bad ideas, anarchism and socialism included).

  • 30 bombs were intercepted by US post office, addressed to prominent business leaders and politicians.

  • June-1919 eight bombs exploded in 8 cities simultaneously – seeming to confirm fears of a attempted takeover-blamed on communists and other radicals. (one destroyed part of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer’s House)

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The Palmer Raids

  • Palmer established the General Intelligence Division (predecessor to FBI)

    • Headed by J Edgar Hoover.

  • Palmer organized raids of various radical organizations, particularly Communist

  • Focused on foreign residents and immigrants

  • Agency often disregarded the civil liberties of suspects.

  • Suspects were mistreated held for indefinite periods of time

  • Detained and deported suspects from the country.

  • Raids failed to turn up evidence of revolutionary conspiracy.

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Nativism and the Legal System-The Sacco-Vanzetti Case

  • 2 men shot and killed two employees of a shoe store in Braintree Ma, Robbing it of $15,000.

  • Sacco and Vanzetti two Italian immigrants were arrested, charged, and tried for the crime.

  • Men were anarchists (someone who opposes all forms of government)

  • Sacco owned a gun similar to the one used in the crime- bullets matched.

  • No conclusive proof to their committing of the crime.

  • Both were found guilty and sentenced to death

    • Guilty or victims of prejudice? See reading

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Nativism and Racism

  • Eugenics movement – false scientific movement that deals with the ability to improve hereditary traits.

  • Social Darwinism in its scientific form. Human inequalities are inherited and the ending of the procreation of the “unfit” and “inferior.”

    • Forced sterilization of African American women

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The Re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan

  • Original KKK response to emancipation of the slaves

  • Re-emergence included hatred towards Catholics, Jews, and Immigrants.

  • Public Relations campaign claiming that the Klan was fighting for “Americanism” solicited 4 million members nationwide

    • See Political cartoon

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Nativism and Public Policy

  • Immigrants Seen as a threat to cultural order

  • Threat to soldiers of WWI who needed jobs in the post-war weak economy.

  • Emergency Quota act (1921) – created a quota system limiting immigration.

    • Only 3% of the total population of an ethnic group that was living in the US as recorded in the 1910 US census could be admitted into the US per year.

  • Result is that it discriminated heavily against Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe.

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Nativism and Public Policy Cont.

  • The National Origins Act (1924)- made immigrant restriction a permanent policy.

  • Set quotas at 2% of people living in the US of a particular nationality as recorded in the 1890 census.

    • Result: scaled back where immigrants could come from- favoring Northern Europe

  • Second part of the act that took effect in 1929 limited immigration to 150,000 people a year.

  • Exempted people from the Western Hemisphere

  • Huge influx of Mexicans to fill need of cheap labor in agriculture, mining, railroads

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    The Economics of the 1920’s- Creating a Boom

    • Republicans controlled the Whitehouse from 1920-1932

    • Both Harding and Coolidge believed in laissez-faire

    • “The business of America is business”

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    The Roaring 20’s beginCauses of Boom

    • Supply-side economics

    • New Business Techniques (assembly lines, mass production, advertising, credit)

    • Rise of New Industries (automobile, radio, motion picture, advertising, other consumer goods)

    • New attitude

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    Economic Philosophy of the 20’sto promote economic growth

    • Supply-side economics a.k.a Trickle Down economics

    • Leads to an uneven distribution of wealth.

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    The Roaring 20’s Begin

    • Between 1923 and 1929 earnings increased

      22 % while work hours decreased

      • What made this Possible?

    • Expansion of Mass Production and Assembly Line system into most industries.

    • Effect – more products at a lower cost

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    Ford Motors

    • Model T 1908- $850

      1914- $490 (mass production)

      1924- $295 (improved assembly line techniques)

      Question: What other industry’s began because of the automobile?

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    New Technologies lead to New Industries

    • Airline

    • Beginning planes during WWI

    • 1918- government created first airmail service

    • 1925 – Kelly Act –postal officials were allowed to contract with private airplane providers to carry mail nationwide

    • 1926- Air Commerce Act – provided federal aid for building airports

    • 1927- Charles Lindberg 1st solo flight across the Atlantic – won popular support for commercial flights

    • 1928- 48 airlines serving 355 American cities.

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    The Radio Industry

    • 1913 – Edwin Armstrong Invented Radio

    • 1926 – National Broadcasting Company (NBC) created.

    • 1927 – NBC has 700 stations nationwide

    • 1928 – Colombia Broadcasting System (CBS) created a coast to coast network

    • Both sold advertising time and hired popular musicians, actors and comedians to appear on their shows

    • 1928 – sold $1 million of advertising time to Republicans and Democrats.

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    The Consumer Society Emerges

    • New industries led to more employment opportunities and higher wages (8%)

    • Higher Wages and shorter workdays (more leisure time) resulted in a decade long buying spree

    • Shift in attitude – people went from being “thrifty” to wanting to consume goods.

      • Let go of the “Protestant Ethic”

    • Installment plans – buying things now and paying for them over time

      • People bought cars, radios, phones, washing machines with the use of credit

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    New Industries lead to the Rise of Mass Advertising

    • Mass advertising emerged to respond to the “need” to create “needs” for new inventions.

    • Consequently has become one of the largest industries in US.

    • Advertisers created appealing, persuasive messages that linked their clients’ products with qualities associated with the modern era. i.e. progress, convenience, leisure, success

      • Comparing Ads

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    How Stable is this economy?

    • In 1929 Henry Ford recorded a personal income of $14 Million dollars While the average personal income was $750

    • Disposable income did grow during the decade 9% for most while the top 1% gained a 75% increase in the disposable income

    • Overall increase in production-Worker productivity increased 32% while wages increased only 8% Where does the excess go?