Muslim Perspectives. Three Faiths Summer School 2006 Ammerdown Centre Jerusalem in the Three Faiths. Faith. Interfaith. Faith. Conflict. Faith Interfaith. Jerusalem – The Holy House. Iliya madinat bayt al-makdis „Aelia, the City of the Temple“ Al-Bayt al Mukaddas „the Holy House“
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Three Faiths Summer School 2006
Ammerdown CentreJerusalem in the Three Faiths
Iliya madinat bayt al-makdis „Aelia, the City of the Temple“
Al-Bayt al Mukaddas „the Holy House“
Al Bayt al Maqdis „the House of the Sanctuary“
Al-Quds „the Holy One“
Prophet Muhammad praying in front of the Kaaba in Mecca
„... take then the place wheron
Abraham once stood as your
place of prayer ...“
„Limitless in His glory is He who
transported His servant by night
from the Inviolable House of Worship
to the Remote House of Worship
(al-masjid al-aqsa) ...“
- Isra „Night Journey“ and
Miraj „Ascension“ of the Prophet Muhammad
- Prophets like David, Salomon, Zacharias and John
- Mary and Jesus
- the Day of Resurrection
Completed 72 AH / 691 CE
on the ancient Temple platform
60 years after Jerusalem was taken by the Muslims.
Commemoration of Muhammad‘s ascension?
Diverting pilgrims from Mecca to Jerusalem?
Demonstration of Islam's superiority?
Trying to win converts?
Muslim equivalent to the Holy Sepulchre?
Caliph Abd al-Malik
"Say: He is God, One,
God the Everlasting,
who has not begotten
and has not been begotten.
He is without equal."
There is no God but God alone, without partner.
Muhammad is God's messenger.
The Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, is only a messenger
Blessings on Muhammad and Jesus.
Qubbat al-Sakhra and Al-Aqsa Mosque
"And they say, 'Be Jews'
– or, 'Christians'
– and you shall be on the right path.'
Say: 'Nay but ours is
the creed of Abraham,
who turned away
from all that is false,
and was not of those
who ascribe divinity
to aught beside God. "
Maqam Ibrahim, "Place of Abraham"
in front of the Kaaba in Mecca
"Say: We believe in God, and in that
which has been bestowed from on high
upon us, and that which has been
bestowed upon Abraham and Ishmael
and Isaac and Jacob and their
descendants, and that which has been
vouchsafed to Moses and Jesus,
and that which has been vouchsafed
to all the other prophets by their
Sustainer: we make no distinction
between any of them. And it is unto
Him that we surrender ourselves."
Tree of Prophets
"Unto every one of you have
We appointed a law and way of life.
And if God had so willed,
He could surely have made you all
one single community:
but [He willed it otherwise] in order to test you
by means of what He has vouchsafed unto you.
Vie, then, with one another in doing good works!
Unto God you all must return;
and then He will make you truly understand
all that on which you were wont to differ."
"Fight against those who - despite having been vouchsafed revelation - do not believe either in God or the Last Day, and do not consider forbidden that which God and His Apostle have forbidden, and do not follow the religion of truth till they pay the exemption tax with a willing hand, after having been humbled [in war]."
Close contacts since the times of early Islam
Severe confrontations during the stay of the Prophet in Medina
Religious and cultural autonomy was respected
"Convivenza" in Andalusia and Ottoman times
Anti-semitism imported from the west
Israeli-Arab conflict tends to be presented as a Jewish-Muslim conflict
Sephardi Synagogue in Jerusalem 1836
“The Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but God's Apostle - [the fulfilment of] His promise which He had conveyed unto Mary - and a soul created by Him.
Believe, then, in God and His apostles, and do not say, ‘[God is] a trinity’".
Islam not as a religion of it's own but a Jewish or Christian heresy
Muslims as "the Children of Ishmael"
Muslims as forerunners of apocalyptic events
Muhammad as a false Prophet
Critic of Muhammad's and Muslims moral compared with Christian chasity
St John of Damascus
( 676 – 749 )
High esteem: Christian spiritual and ascetic practises
Acceptance: birth of Jesus, his mission, certain teachings and miracles
Refutation: trinitarian doctrines and death on the cross
Irritation: refusing to accept Islam a continuation of former revelations
Christian delegation in Medina
at the times of the prophet
Accusations against Jews and Christians:
Altering the divine relevation
Accusations against Christians:
Propagation of errant doctrines
Grievous mistakes in religious practice
Opening the frontiers to polytheism and pagan practises
"This is a letter to the servant of God Umar, Commander of the Faithful, from the Christians of such-and-such a city. When you came against us, we asked you for safe-conduct for ourselves, our descendants, our property, and the people of our community, and we untertook the following obligations toward you: ..."
"We shall not build ... new churches."
"We shall not manifest our religion publicly."
"We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims."
Greek Orthodox Easter procession
Greek Orthodox wedding in Christian Quarter
Khidr – "the Green One"
Qubbat al-Khidr on the Haram
Procession of "Nabi Musa" in front of Al-Aqsa around 1920
"The Turkish … are just enough not to deprive poor Christians who come there, and these later receive the same amount as the Muslims, but as they go there only rarely the director of the place is not bothered by them."
(French traveller 1705)
Ottoman imaret (soup kithcen)
Tomb of Mary in Kidron Valley
"Do not come to the Church of Mary … nor go into the two pillars into the church of the Mount of Olives, for they are both idols and whoever enters there in a spirit of devotion, his act shall be annulled."
Medieval Pilgrims entering "Outremer"
Russian Pilgrims entering Jerusalem 1905
"No day passed without foreigners" (Al Muqaddasi – 10. century)
Richard Lion Heart (London)
George W. Bush (Washington) - as seen by Al-Jazeera
"In the long sequence of interaction and fusion between Orient and Occident out of which our civilization has grown, the Crusades were a tragic and destructive episode"
(Stepen Runciman: The Crusades. 1951)
Napoleon in Egypt 1798
French iIllustration 1837
Ottoman coat of Arms
Ottomans recruiting soldiers in Jaffa - 1888
Kawass of Anglican bishop
Representatives of Christian denominations in Palestine
Hatt-i Humayun 1856 All Ottoman citizens equal under law
Greek Newspaper illustration – Athens 1858
Jewish quarters in Jerusalem 1920
in Ottoman army 1910
Shomerim (guards) of a Zionist settlement 1920
British troops in Jaffa Road, Jerusalem, 1929
Dome of the Rock and Western Wall 1937
Dome of the Rock and Western Wall today
"Ultimately if the entire world truly strives for peace in the city of al-Quds, Muslims must retake the upper hand and regain its rule, as they alone would provide continuously the guarantee of freedom of worship and safety for the citizens of the City and they will re-implement Umar's Covenant for a third time. Only then will al-Quds be, as it is meant to be, a City of Peace."
(Mohammed Abdul Hameed Al-Khateeb. Al-Quds. 1998)
"The shared heritage and belief in one God summons all believers to be peace-makers. We should affirm the holiness of the Jerusalem for all three faiths and recognize the rights of all to worship in their own way. We should affirm that claims made in the name of tradition cannot exclude or nullify the claims of others."
(Muhammad Hourani: A Muslim Approach to Dialogue in Jerusalem in the New Millennium. 2000)
wa Allah a'alam
and God knows best
Wilhelm Sabri Hoffmann
German Muslim League Bonn