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Muslim Perspectives. Three Faiths Summer School 2006 Ammerdown Centre Jerusalem in the Three Faiths. Faith. Interfaith. Faith. Conflict. Faith Interfaith. Jerusalem – The Holy House. Iliya madinat bayt al-makdis „Aelia, the City of the Temple“ Al-Bayt al Mukaddas „the Holy House“

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muslim perspectives
Muslim Perspectives

Three Faiths Summer School 2006

Ammerdown CentreJerusalem in the Three Faiths

conflict
Conflict

Faith

Interfaith

jerusalem the holy house
Jerusalem – The Holy House

Iliya madinat bayt al-makdis „Aelia, the City of the Temple“

Al-Bayt al Mukaddas „the Holy House“

Al Bayt al Maqdis „the House of the Sanctuary“

Al-Quds „the Holy One“

Prophet Muhammad praying in front of the Kaaba in Mecca

changing the qibla
Changing the qibla

„... take then the place wheron

Abraham once stood as your

place of prayer ...“

(Qur‘an 2:125)

the journey to the farthest mosque
The journey to the farthest mosque

„Limitless in His glory is He who

transported His servant by night

from the Inviolable House of Worship

(al-masjid al-haram)

to the Remote House of Worship

(al-masjid al-aqsa) ...“

(Qur‘an 17:1)

jerusalem as a holy place for muslims
Jerusalem as a holy place for Muslims

- Isra „Night Journey“ and

Miraj „Ascension“ of the Prophet Muhammad

- Prophets like David, Salomon, Zacharias and John

- Mary and Jesus

- the Day of Resurrection

qubbat al sakhra the dome of the rock
Qubbat al-Sakhra - The Dome of the Rock

Completed 72 AH / 691 CE

on the ancient Temple platform

60 years after Jerusalem was taken by the Muslims.

the dome of the rock it s mission
The Dome of the Rock – it's mission?

Commemoration of Muhammad‘s ascension?

Diverting pilgrims from Mecca to Jerusalem?

Demonstration of Islam's superiority?

Trying to win converts?

Muslim equivalent to the Holy Sepulchre?

Caliph Abd al-Malik

the dome of the rock it s inscriptions
The Dome of the Rock – it's inscriptions

"Say: He is God, One,

God the Everlasting,

who has not begotten

and has not been begotten.

He is without equal."

There is no God but God alone, without partner.

Muhammad is God's messenger.

The Messiah Jesus, son of Mary, is only a messenger

Blessings on Muhammad and Jesus.

haram al sharif the noble sanctuary
Haram Al-Sharif "the Noble Sanctuary"

Qubbat al-Sakhra and Al-Aqsa Mosque

ours is the creed of abraham
"... ours is the creed of Abraham"

"And they say, 'Be Jews'

– or, 'Christians'

– and you shall be on the right path.'

Say: 'Nay but ours is

the creed of Abraham,

who turned away

from all that is false,

and was not of those

who ascribe divinity

to aught beside God. "

(Qur'an 2:135)

Maqam Ibrahim, "Place of Abraham"

in front of the Kaaba in Mecca

we make no distinction between any of them
"... we make no distinction between any of them"

"Say: We believe in God, and in that

which has been bestowed from on high

upon us, and that which has been

bestowed upon Abraham and Ishmael

and Isaac and Jacob and their

descendants, and that which has been

vouchsafed to Moses and Jesus,

and that which has been vouchsafed

to all the other prophets by their

Sustainer: we make no distinction

between any of them. And it is unto

Him that we surrender ourselves."

(Qur'an 2:135)

Tree of Prophets

ahl al kitab the people of the book
Ahl al-Kitab "The People of the Book"

"Unto every one of you have

We appointed a law and way of life.

And if God had so willed,

He could surely have made you all

one single community:

but [He willed it otherwise] in order to test you

by means of what He has vouchsafed unto you.

Vie, then, with one another in doing good works!

Unto God you all must return;

and then He will make you truly understand

all that on which you were wont to differ."

(Qur'an 5:48)

fighting for muslim superiority
Fighting for Muslim superiority

"Fight against those who - despite having been vouchsafed revelation - do not believe either in God or the Last Day, and do not consider forbidden that which God and His Apostle have forbidden, and do not follow the religion of truth till they pay the exemption tax with a willing hand, after having been humbled [in war]."

(Qur'an 9:29)

Arab Cavallry

muslims and jews
Muslims and Jews

Close contacts since the times of early Islam

Severe confrontations during the stay of the Prophet in Medina

Religious and cultural autonomy was respected

"Convivenza" in Andalusia and Ottoman times

Anti-semitism imported from the west

Israeli-Arab conflict tends to be presented as a Jewish-Muslim conflict

Sephardi Synagogue in Jerusalem 1836

jesus christ isa al masih
Jesus Christ – Isa "al-Masih„

“The Christ Jesus, son of Mary, was but God's Apostle - [the fulfilment of] His promise which He had conveyed unto Mary - and a soul created by Him.

Believe, then, in God and His apostles, and do not say, ‘[God is] a trinity’".

(Quran 4:171)

christian apologetics
Christian apologetics

Islam not as a religion of it's own but a Jewish or Christian heresy

Muslims as "the Children of Ishmael"

Muslims as forerunners of apocalyptic events

Muhammad as a false Prophet

Critic of Muhammad's and Muslims moral compared with Christian chasity

St John of Damascus

( 676 – 749 )

muslims and christians
Muslims and Christians

High esteem: Christian spiritual and ascetic practises

Acceptance: birth of Jesus, his mission, certain teachings and miracles

Refutation: trinitarian doctrines and death on the cross

Irritation: refusing to accept Islam a continuation of former revelations

Christian delegation in Medina

at the times of the prophet

muslim apologetics
Muslim apologetics

Accusations against Jews and Christians:

Altering the divine relevation

Accusations against Christians:

Propagation of errant doctrines

Grievous mistakes in religious practice

Opening the frontiers to polytheism and pagan practises

the covenant of umar
The Covenant of Umar

"This is a letter to the servant of God Umar, Commander of the Faithful, from the Christians of such-and-such a city. When you came against us, we asked you for safe-conduct for ourselves, our descendants, our property, and the people of our community, and we untertook the following obligations toward you: ..."

"We shall not build ... new churches."

"We shall not manifest our religion publicly."

"We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims."

Patriarch Sophronius

of Jerusalem

festivities and rituals of faith communities
Festivities and rituals of faith communities

Greek Orthodox Easter procession

Greek Orthodox wedding in Christian Quarter

saint george
Saint George

St George

Khidr – "the Green One"

Qubbat al-Khidr on the Haram

16. century

festival of nabi musa
Festival of "Nabi Musa"

Procession of "Nabi Musa" in front of Al-Aqsa around 1920

charity
Charity

"The Turkish … are just enough not to deprive poor Christians who come there, and these later receive the same amount as the Muslims, but as they go there only rarely the director of the place is not bothered by them."

(French traveller 1705)

Ottoman imaret (soup kithcen)

praying side by side
Praying side by side

Tomb of Mary in Kidron Valley

"Do not come to the Church of Mary … nor go into the two pillars into the church of the Mount of Olives, for they are both idols and whoever enters there in a spirit of devotion, his act shall be annulled."

(Muslim tradition)

pilgrims
Pilgrims

Medieval Pilgrims entering "Outremer"

Russian Pilgrims entering Jerusalem 1905

"No day passed without foreigners" (Al Muqaddasi – 10. century)

the shade of the crusades
The shade of the Crusades

Richard Lion Heart (London)

Salah al-Din

(Damascus)

George W. Bush (Washington) - as seen by Al-Jazeera

crusades
Crusades

"In the long sequence of interaction and fusion between Orient and Occident out of which our civilization has grown, the Crusades were a tragic and destructive episode"

(Stepen Runciman: The Crusades. 1951)

19 century conquest colonialism and civilization
19. Century – conquest, colonialism and civilization

Napoleon in Egypt 1798

French iIllustration 1837

ottoman dilemma
Ottoman dilemma

Ottoman coat of Arms

ottoman dilemma35
Ottoman dilemma

Ottomans recruiting soldiers in Jaffa - 1888

christians under ottoman rule
Christians under Ottoman rule

Kawass of Anglican bishop

Representatives of Christian denominations in Palestine

tanzimat i hayriye salutary reforms
Tanzimat-i Hayriye – Salutary Reforms

Hatt-i Humayun 1856 All Ottoman citizens equal under law

Greek Newspaper illustration – Athens 1858

jewish immigration in jerusalem
Jewish immigration in Jerusalem

Jewish quarters in Jerusalem 1920

jewish dilemma integration or separation
Jewish dilemma: integration or separation

Jewish soldiers

in Ottoman army 1910

Shomerim (guards) of a Zionist settlement 1920

british rule
British rule

British troops in Jaffa Road, Jerusalem, 1929

jerusalem in 20 century
Jerusalem in 20. century

Dome of the Rock and Western Wall 1937

Dome of the Rock and Western Wall today

jerusalem her future two muslim perspectives
Jerusalem – her future – two Muslim perspectives

"Ultimately if the entire world truly strives for peace in the city of al-Quds, Muslims must retake the upper hand and regain its rule, as they alone would provide continuously the guarantee of freedom of worship and safety for the citizens of the City and they will re-implement Umar's Covenant for a third time. Only then will al-Quds be, as it is meant to be, a City of Peace."

(Mohammed Abdul Hameed Al-Khateeb. Al-Quds. 1998)

jerusalem her future two muslim perspectives44
Jerusalem – her future – two Muslim perspectives

"The shared heritage and belief in one God summons all believers to be peace-makers. We should affirm the holiness of the Jerusalem for all three faiths and recognize the rights of all to worship in their own way. We should affirm that claims made in the name of tradition cannot exclude or nullify the claims of others."

(Muhammad Hourani: A Muslim Approach to Dialogue in Jerusalem in the New Millennium. 2000)

and in the end
... and in the end ...

wa Allah a'alam

and God knows best

Wilhelm Sabri Hoffmann

German Muslim League Bonn