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Motivation and Web-based Autonomous Learning. Rou-Jui Sophia Hu The Department of Applied Foreign Languages Cheng Shiu University k0378@mail.csu.edu.tw. OUTLINE. INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE STUDY LITERATURE REVIEW METHODOLOGY STATISTICAL ANALYSIS FINDINGS RESULT CONCLUSION.

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motivation and web based autonomous learning

Motivation and Web-based Autonomous Learning

Rou-Jui Sophia Hu

The Department of Applied Foreign Languages

Cheng Shiu University

k0378@mail.csu.edu.tw

outline
OUTLINE
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
  • LITERATURE REVIEW
  • METHODOLOGY
  • STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
  • FINDINGS
  • RESULT
  • CONCLUSION
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • Web-based learning has become popular among EFL language learners. Due to the requirement of colleges and universities, most college students spend their out-of-class time in self-access language learning centers training on-line English reading/listening skills. While they accumulate autonomous learning hours, are they making significant improvements in English language proficiency as they are expected? When they are motivated to go to language learning centers only because they are required to, is the stimulant strong and significant enough to strengthen their English language competence?
  • Motivation has played a key role in successful learning (Gardner, 1990; Noels, 2001; Masgoret & Gardmer. 2003; Wachob, 2005). Different types of motivation provide learners with varied degrees of incentives in acquiring a foreign/second language. Web-based autonomous learning has long been deemed as an effective alternative to classroom learning. However, when the motif of doing on-line English language training is only because of requirement from respective academic institution, is autonomous learning an effective way in attaining English language proficiency?
purpose of the study
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
  • This study aims to explore if:
  • Requirement is a significant motivation variable for attaining English language proficiency through on-line learning?
  • What other types of motivations are related with autonomous on-line learning?
litearture review
LITEARTURE REVIEW
  • A meta-analysis of motivation studies has pointed to motivation as the key to success in learning a foreign or second language (Gardner, 1990; Massgoret & Gardner, 2003).
  • Creating learner autonomy within the individual relies heavily on individual self-motivation (Wachob, 2005).
  • A great body of research maintains that learner autonomy is the decisive point of learning motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Dickinson, 1995; Dornyei & Csizer, 1998). However, on the other hand, Littlewood (1996), Ushioda (1996), Cotterall (1999), and Spratt & Chan (2003) contend that motivation is the decisive point of learner autonomy.
  • This study sees motivation as a factor that influences autonomous English language learning.
methodology 1
METHODOLOGY(1)
  • Subject: 394 students from Cheng Shiu University participated in this study, including 186 male students and 197 female students. 155 students are from the School of Engineering, 181 students are from the School of Business, and 46 students are from the School of Humanities.
  • Instrument: The instrument for measuring students’ attitude is a five-point Likert Scale questionnaire developed by the author. The Cronbach’s Alpha for web-based learning statements=.808 while that for motivation = .884, which both pass the required value .70 of reliability.
  • Procedure: The questionnaires are handed to the students who go to Language Learning Center at Cheng Shiu University to do on-line English language training. Four hundred questionnaires were completed in a matter of two days because of students’ high attendance at Language Learning Center.
methodology 2 the questionnaire
METHODOLOGY(2)—The Questionnaire
  • 英語學習動機 (English Learning Motivation)我學英文是因為:

M1 英文是必修課程。……………………………………………..5 4 3 2 1

M2 為了要取得證照。……………………………………………..5 4 3 2 1

M3 英文好可以讓我找工作更順利。……………………………..5 4 3 2 1

M4 出國旅遊時幫助很大。………………………………………..5 4 3 2 1

M 5 我對英語國家的文化有興趣。………………………………..5 4 3 2 1

M6 我對學英文這個語言有興趣。………………………………..5 4 3 2 1

M7 我想出國(英語國家留學。……………………………………5 4 3 2 1

M8 我想與外國朋友溝通。……………………………………….5 4 3 2 1

M9 可以讀懂英文報紙,聽懂英文節目、新聞、或電影。……...5 4 3 2 1

M10 可以看懂網路的英文訊息。……………………………………5 4 3 2 1

M11 總之,我想學好英文的動機很強……………………………. 5 4 3 2 1

  • 網路自學(Web-based Autonomous Learning)

W1 我主動上網自學的意願很高。……………………………….. 5 4 3 2 1

W2 就算學校及老師沒有要求我,我也會自己上網自學。…….. 5 4 3 2 1

W3 網路自學讓我的英文能力變好。………………………………5 4 3 2 1

W4 網路自學使我的英文聽力變好。…………………………….. 5 4 3 2 1

W5 網路自學使我的英文閱讀能力變好。……………………….. 5 4 3 2 1

W6 線上題庫練習對我的英文有幫助。………………………….. 5 4 3 2 1

W7 線上觀賞電影對我的英文有幫助。………………………….. 5 4 3 2 1

statistical analysis correlational analysis
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS—Correlational Analysis
  • M1(requirement): required course
  • M2(requirement): obtaining the certificate of English proficiency required by the school
  • M3 (instrumental-oriented): getting a good job
  • M4 (instrumental-oriented): for the sake of travelling
  • M5 (integrative-oriented): interested in English language culture
  • M6 (integrative-oriented): interested in English language
  • M7 (instrumental-oriented): studying abroad
  • M8 (integrative-oriented): communicating with friends using English as their mother tongue
  • M9 (instrumental-oriented): being able to read English language papers, listen to English language programs and English language news on TV, and English language movies.
  • M10 (instrumental-oriented): being able to read information in English on the Internet.
  • M11: In all, I am highly motivated to learn English
findings
FINDINGS

1. The “required” motif is significantly correlated with web-based autonomous English language learning.

2. Other types of motivation such as instrumental and integrative motivations are also significantly correlated with autonomous web-based English language learning.

3. M6(“being interested in learning English language”) shows higher correlations with web-based autonomous learning when compared with the correlations between other motivation variables and web-based autonomous learning. The correlation coefficients range from .215** through .407**, higher than the rest of the correlation coefficients .

4. From M1 to M11, their correlations with W4(“web-based learning improves my English listening comprehension”.) are higher than those of W5 (“web-based learning improves my English reading comprehension”.) It indicates that no matter what type of motivation it is, the effectiveness of improving listening comprehension is more evident than improving reading comprehension.

5. The correlation coefficients between M11(“In all, I am highly motivated to learn English.”) and W1(“I am willing to do autonomous on-line training.”) /W2( “I will definitely do on-line autonomous learning without the requirement from the school or the teacher.”) show r=.496** and r=.500, respectively, the top two among all of the correlation coefficients. It indicates that, in an overall survey, students who are highly motivated are more likely to do autonomous on-line English language skill training.

results
RESULTS
  • To sum up, no matter what motif that stimulates students’ learning will, it is ascertained that motivation correlates significantly with autonomous web-based learning.
  • Among different types of motivation, being interested in the language shows higher correlation coefficients with web-based autonomous learning when compared with other types of motivation variables.
  • According to the findings, the motivations (no matter which type) of doing on-line language training correlate higher with listening comprehension training than with reading comprehension training. It means that the effectiveness of improving listening comprehension is more evident than improving reading comprehension.
discussion
DISCUSSION
  • Although almost all of the college students are required to pass the “threshold” of English language proficiency before they graduate, there is alternative approach for students who cannot make it in their last year in college. The college seniors can take an intensive English course, and if they pass the course, they pass the threshold. Therefore, students who do not frequent the language learning center are mostly the students who learn English passively; while those who go to self-access language learning center frequently are students who learn English actively.

This may be the cause of higher correlation of students’ interest in learning the language (integrative motivation) with autonomous web-based learning than do other motivation variables.

.No matter what type of motivation it is, motivation shows a significant relationship with web-based autonomous learning. Therefore, “requirement” may sound a bit passive for language acquisition, but its significant correlation shows that it is a significant factor for determining the success of foreign language proficiency attainment.

recommendation for further research
RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
  • Since no single study should ever be accepted as conclusive evidence for any hypothesis, replications of this study are encouraged. For example, a bigger sample size composed of students who go to self-access language learning center frequently and those who don’t go there frequently is highly suggested.
  • Secondly, a pilot study is suggested so that the instrument can be revised, and the items not found to be significant predictors can be deleted.