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Educational Philosophies . "Education is what remains when we have forgotten all that we have been taught.” George Savile, Marquis of Halifax (1633-1695) English statesman and author. Reggio Emilia Approach. Response to WWII (Italy)/more just world-democratic Began – parent initiative

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Educational Philosophies


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    1. Educational Philosophies "Education is what remains when we have forgotten all that we have been taught.” George Savile, Marquis of Halifax (1633-1695) English statesman and author.

    2. Reggio Emilia Approach • Response to WWII (Italy)/more just world-democratic • Began – parent initiative • Sought help Loris Malaguzzi (Constructivist Approach) • Birth through six years of age • 1968-Preschool; 1970 Infant Toddler • 1991-Innovative approach worldwide (Newsweek Magazine) • Principles: respect, responsibility, community

    3. Reggio Emilia Principles Child is the protagonist . . . • Some control over learning • Learn through experiences & exploration (constructivist/ emergent curriculum) • Relationships with others • Endless ways to express themselves

    4. Reggio Emilia Philosophy Involvement Parents. . . • Volunteering • Philosophy in home • Expected to participate • School policy • Curriculum Planning/Evaluation • Child Development Concerns

    5. Reggio Emilia – Role of Teachers • Co-learning, collaborator • Skilled Observers • Curriculum – interests of children • Expand children’s learning – pictures, videos, notes, conversations • Absence of teacher manuals & achievement tests • Children with teacher – 3 years

    6. Reggio Emilia – Long Term Projects • Real life problem solving & creative thinking among peers • Small groups work on projects/based on developmental and socio cultural concerns; others self-select activities • Different from thematic approach • High value on improve, flexibility, children’s interests-enjoy the unexpected!

    7. Reggio Emilia – The Environment • Viewed as 3rd teacher • Belief – children create meaning & make sense of their world (alphabet) • Plants, natural light, displays of projects, photographs, children’s work/discussion comments • Design-set up for interaction, sense of community

    8. Reggio Emilia – Developmentally Appropriate Practice • Some challenges to Western practices • Teacher viewed as confused contributor to learning versus teacher competence • Importance of child’s ability to negotiate is emphasized

    9. Reggio Emilia – 100 Languages of Learning • Travelling exhibition, Loris Malaguzzi • Children investigate • Generate and test hypotheses • Depict understanding through symbolic languages • Drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, & writing • Purposely allow mistakes to happen • Trust in children/family to select curriculum worth knowing about

    10. Reggio Emilia – Video Clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1UFhcDzAqdk&NR=1 (student clip) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1UFhcDzAqdk&feature=related (student clip) • Emergent Curriculum Loris Malaguzzi (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNFYFSa0720&feature=related)

    11. Maria Montessori History • Born Italy • Work – Univ. of Rome – Psychiatric Clinic/Treatment of children • Directed school for children with mental disabilities (considered uneducable-2 years later-passed test) • Motivated study potential of typical children, led to S.F. Pananma-Pacific International Exposition (21 children, 4 months, observation booth) • After WWII – emphasis on peace

    12. Maria Montessori Information • Ages 3 – 6 & 6-12+ • Class size (30-35) teacher, assistant • 3-hour period of uninterrupted, work time each day • Assessment-portfolio • Real test: behavior of children/holistic view • Happiness, maturity, kindness, love of learning, concentration, work • Teachers-extensive Montessori training • Prepared environment

    13. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Independence • Observation • Following the Child • Correcting the Child • Prepared Environment • Absorbent Mind

    14. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Independence • Allow children to succeed • Offer help only when needed

    15. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Observation • By teachers • Child bangs on objects, need for gross motor activity such as a drum

    16. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Following the Child • Child takes lead • Help move to next step – stay challenged

    17. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Correcting the Child • Mistakes are made • Calmly help child to decide what to do • Something is dropped-child picks it up

    18. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Prepared Environment • Child sized equipment/tables/chairs • Safe for exploration • Ready and beautifully inviting • Activities set up for success (cutting, writing name) • Freedom of choice (versus rotating children from table to table) • Environment includes the parents

    19. Maria Montessori Approach • Principles, concepts applied across ages • Absorbent Mind • Not necessary for lessons to learn – mind absorbs everything • Hands-on active exploration • Language-cautions teachers to think of how they talk to children – mutual respect • Try not to say word “no” to child, instead say “stop”

    20. Maria Montessori Curriculum • All areas of intelligences & styles of learning respected & nurtured/aligns with Howard Gardner (Multiple Intelligences) • musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, intuitive, natural, and the traditional linguistic and logical-mathematical

    21. Maria Montessori Curriculum Materials organized 5 Curriculum Areas • Practical Life • Sensorial • Language • Math • Cultural

    22. Maria Montessori Video Clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OM1Gu9KXVkk (Time 10:05) • http://www.blog.montessoriforeveryone.com/top-ten-montessori-videos-on-youtube.html (top 10 videos)

    23. Quote • “Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed.” – Maria Montessori

    24. Waldorf History • Began 1919 • Rudolf Steiner, Austrian philosopher, teacher & developer/founder of Waldorf (died 1925) • Started 1st School • Named/Waldoff-Astoria Cigarette factory/employees • Stuggart, Germany

    25. Waldorf History • Steiner focused on writings, lectures, private consultations • Fields: art, architecture, science, education, ag, medicine, economic, religion, care of dying, social organization • Influence today includes Waldorf • Strives to transform education – art • Whole child – heart, hands & head • Encourages creativity and “free thinking”

    26. Waldorf History • 2010/600 Schools worldwide, 125 North America; 2 stated funded in Wisconsin/Michigan • Charter Public School in Chico, CA • Private School in Sonora, CA • Families – “middleclass, avoid TV & shopping malls, buy organic, recycle and compost; want their children to strive for other things than those just right SAT scores” (www.waldorf critics.org)

    27. Waldorf Approach • Students of Waldorf • Emphasis on the humanities/arts such as music, dance, theater • Writing, literature, legends, myths • Learn to knit by first grade • Read, ingest, and test! • Experienced through experiences • Cultivates-life-long learning • Cognitive, physical, spiritual • To be of service to the world

    28. Waldorf • Steiner/founder/controversy • Steiner founded Anthroposophy • Philosophy is NOT taught to Waldorf students • Highly complex esoteric (understood by only by an inner circle) philosophy • “Cultivating conscientiously form of thinking independent of sensory experience.” Wikipedia

    29. Waldorf • Spiritual/many definitions • Highest priority-loving to oneself, others, planet • Happiness comes from within (not materialism) • Yoga, religion, meditation does not define a person as spiritual • Both religion/spirituality connote belief in a Higher Power of some kind • Both religion/spirituality desire to connect with Higher Power, rituals practices, daily moral behaviors that foster connection

    30. Waldorf Approach • Responds to three developmental phases of childhood • Birth to 7 • 7 to 14 • 14 to 18 • Steiner suggests: curriculum meaningful and age appropriate

    31. Waldorf Approach • Teachers value – inner enthusiasm, think independently, strive harmony; greet children each morning with a handshake • Same teacher – 8 elementary school years • Similarity to Montessori-both tactile (senses) & developmentally appropriate curriculum (taught to knit by 1st grade)

    32. Waldorf Approach • Educate all children • Understanding of world cultures & religions (non-sectarian, non denominational, no particular religious doctrine) • Spiritual dimension • Families – broad range religious traditions and interests

    33. Waldorf Environment • In a time of computers and early learning (teach your baby to read): • Emphasis on imagination • Void of brightly colored toys and bulletin boards • Walls painted in soothing pastels

    34. Waldorf Readiness for Real World • 2010 Waldorf Website - According to a recent study of Waldorf graduates: • 94% attended college or university • 47% chose humanities or arts as a major • 42% chose sciences or math as a major • 89% are highly satisfied in choice of occupation • 91% are active in lifelong education • 92% placed a high value on critical thinking • 90% highly values tolerance of other viewpoints

    35. Waldorf Readiness for Real World Transfer to public school • Upgrade reading (start at age 7/Waldorf), new approach to science (differs Waldorf-observation of natural phenomena; Public-formulation of abstract concepts and laws • Well prepared for social studies, math, humanities

    36. HighScope • Began in US – 1960s • Common here, other countries • Preschool, kindergarten, elementary • Based on Jean Piaget’s ideas/active, hands-on learning, scientists (Swiss psychologist, 1896-1980) • Led by David Weikert • Teachers/facilitators or partners • Encompasses all aspects of child development • Partnership with parents

    37. HighScope • David Weikart, Director of special services in the Ypsilanti, Michigan public school district • Known – successful school district • Interested in the children failing (low scores, impoverished neighborhoods) • Collaborated • Committee of elementary education leaders that included Perry School's, Charles Eugene Beatty, Michigan's first African-American principal. • Known as the Perry Preschool Project (1962) • Hired 4 teacher, Michigan’s 1st preschool, operation Perry Elementary School

    38. HighScope Classroom • Preschool Focus • Cognitively oriented rather than social and emotional advances • Theory for teaching/learning • Support child’s talents through active learning • Support from families, teachers, administrators • Designated different activities: • Water play, reading, sand play, art, writing, dramatic play, housekeeping, block building • Independence and responsibility

    39. HighScope Plan-Do-Review • Formally or informal • First – plan what to do and select materials • Second – carry out plan • Third – review plan – discuss what they did and what was successful

    40. Importance of Study to ECE Field • Late 1960s and early 1970s, research examining effectiveness of preschool-inconclusive. • 1969 Head Start program evaluated by Westinghouse Learning Corporation • Findings led policy makers and the public to believe that Head Start was a failure. • Same time period,Urie Bronfenbrenner & colleagues reviewed existing studies of early childhood program effects • Findings only critical feature of effective preschool programs was that they targeted parents.

    41. Importance of Study to ECE Field • To refute findings, Irving Lazar brought together researchers conducting longitudinal studies, effects of early childhood programs • Formed the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. • Main goal-to refute earlier findings-preschool effects diminish with time • Group's work identified clear long-term effects for children of diverse program • Some studies focus was children, some focus was parents

    42. HighScope Perry Preschool Project • Well known Study/HighScope research efforts, longitudinal data collection by Weikart and colleagues • 123 African Americans born in poverty and at high risk of failing in school • 1962–1967, subjects ages 3 and 4 • Randomly divided into two groups • Program group: enrolled high-quality preschool program based on HighScope's participatory learning approach • Comparison group who received no preschool program.

    43. Perry Study – Study • Originally not a longitudinal study • Effects of each finding, inspired further data collection • Data collecting: ages 10, 14, 19, 27, 39-41

    44. Perry Study – Early Findings • Effects Age 10: • Despite diminishing effect intellectual performance • Fewer held back a grade • Fewer placed in special education • (17% enrolled compared 34% not enrolled) • Findings as 14-year-olds, even bigger statistically significant effect • significantly higher average achievement scores at age 14 • Findings as 19-year-olds • Significantly higher literacy scores

    45. Perry Study – Adult Findings • Effects Age 27: •  Incidence of crime • 7%-35% arrested 5 or more • 7&-25%, drug related offenses • Earnings and economic status • Earn $2,000 or more a mo. (29%-7%) • Owned their own homes (36%-13%) • Owned second car (30%-13%) • Received welfare assistance/social services at some time (59%-80%)

    46. Perry Study – Early Findings • Effects Age 27 (continued): • Educational attainment • Graduated from high school or GED certificate (71%-54%) • Marriage and single parenthood • Married (40%-8%) • Women single parents (57%-83%)

    47. Perry Study – Adults at age 40 • More recent phase (2005), 97% participants still living,interviewed at age 40. • Other data gathered from school, social services, and arrest records.  • Findings: age 39-41, group attended preschool compared to control group (did not attend preschool) • higher earnings • more likely to hold a job • committed fewer crimes • more likely to have graduated from high school

    48. Conclusion • Three strengths • Design involved random assignment of poor children either to a preschool program group or a no-preschool program group. Exception siblings – assigned to same group. • Research perspective: longitudinal follow-ups through age 27 had very little missing data — an average of only 5% per measure • Pattern of findings/internally consistent • Polictically • Head Start supported/Federal Government • State Preschools • Hope-lasting contribution to society

    49. Perry Preschool Project • http://www.highscope.org/content.asp?contentid=219 • http://www.highscope.org/Content.asp?ContentId=232