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Cultural value & dimensions . Topics. Cultural value dimensions Masculinity/Femininity Power distance Long term orientation Achievement v.s ascription Universalistic v.s particularistic Specific v.s. diffuse Affective v.s. neutral. Masculinity and Femininity.

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topics
Topics
  • Cultural value dimensions
    • Masculinity/Femininity
    • Power distance
    • Long term orientation
    • Achievement v.s ascription
    • Universalistic v.s particularistic
    • Specific v.s. diffuse
    • Affective v.s. neutral
masculinity and femininity
Masculinity and Femininity
  • Masculinity- refers to assertiveness, materialism, and a lack of concern for others
  • Femininity- refer to a concern for others, for relationships, and for the quality of life
  • In the GLOBE study, gender egalitarianism measures roles men and women are suited for
    • Denmark and New Zealand most gender egalitarian; Eastern Europe and Nordic Europe
    • Iran and Qatar are the least gender egalitarian; Middle East, Confucian Asia, Germanic Europe
slide4
In masculine cultures, there is division of gender roles
  • Masculine cultures emphasize on work goals (earnings) and achievement
  • In feminine cultures, the social gender roles overlap
  • Feminine cultures emphasize on having a good working relationship with direct superior and cooperating well with one another
power distance
Power distance
  • Refer to the level of acceptance by a society of the unequal distribution of power in institution
  • In large power distance cultures, superiors and subordinates consider each other as existentially unequal → organizations centralize powers as much as possible in few hands at the upper level
  • Subordinates expect to be told what to do, the ideal boss plays the benevolent autocratic role
  • Rewards and punishments based on age, rank, status, title and seniority
power distance1
Power distance
  • In small power distance cultures, the hierarchical system is just an inequality of roles, established for convenience; roles may be changed. → Organizations are fairly decentralized
  • Small power distance cultures value equal power distribution, equal rights and relations, and equitable rewards and punishments based on performance
long term orientation
Long-term orientation
  • Based on Confucian dynamism dimension underlying Chinese values, attitudes and behavior
  • Long-term orientation refers to the extent to which members of a culture accept delayed gratification of their material, social and emotional needs
achievement v s ascription
Achievement v.s. Ascription
  • Refers to the source of power and status in society
  • In achievement society status and power is based on individual achievement (job performance, level of education, experience…)
  • In ascription society, status are ascribed on the basis of class, age, gender…
  • People from ascription society tend to live up to their ascribed status
universalistic v s particularistic
Universalistic v.s Particularistic
  • Refers to how we judge others’ behavior
  • Universalistic cultures apply rules and system objectively, without consideration for individual circumstances → all persons falling under the rule should be treated the same
  • Particularistic cultures puts the obligation on relationships and is more subjective → people in this culture are more likely to pass on insider information to a friend
universalistic v s particularistic1
Universalistic v.s Particularistic
  • In particularistic cultures, judgments focus on the exceptional nature of present circumstances → must sustain, protect or discount this person no matter what the rules say
  • A universalist will think of particularists as “they cannot be trusted because they will always help their friends.”
  • A particularist conversely think of universalists as “you cannot trust them; they would not even help a friend.”
affective v s neutral
Affective v.s. Neutral
  • In cultures high on affectivity, people would openly express emotions
  • In cultures high on neutrality, emotions and feelings are controlled
  • Humor and jokes help to loose up the audiences in US and England but not in a professional setting in Germany
  • Raising voice for important issues is seen as a sign of extra concern in Nigeria, but a sign of loss face in Malaysia
specific v s diffuse
Specific v.s. Diffuse
  • Refers to involvement in relationships
  • Specific-oriented cultures separate work and personal issues and relationship. Businesses are impersonal
  • Diffuse-oriented cultures spill work into personal relationships and vice versa.
independent and interdependent self construal
Independent and Interdependent Self-construal

Exist within each individual regardless of his or her cultural identity

Refer to the degree to which people conceive of themselves as separate or connected to others respectively

Independent construal of self: an individual is a unique entity with an individuated collection of feelings, cognitions, and motivations

Interdependent construal of self: importance of relational connectedness

personal self esteem vs collective self esteem
Personal self-esteem vs collective self-esteem
  • Personal self-esteem (independent self): feeling good about oneself requires fulfilling the tasks associated with being an independent, being unique, expressing one’s inner attributes, and asserting oneself
  • Collective self-esteem (interdependent self): feeling good about oneself derives from fulfilling the tasks associated with being interdependent with relevant others such as belonging, fitting in, occupying one’s proper place, promoting others’ goal, and maintaining harmony