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An Introduction to the Internet INLS 80, Summer I, 1999 Ilana Kingsley Notes based on previous INLS80 classes from Kristen Chaffin & Dr. Greg Newby What is the Internet? An internet is a set of computer networks that are connected to each other

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an introduction to the internet

An Introduction to the Internet

INLS 80, Summer I, 1999

Ilana Kingsley

Notes based on previous INLS80 classes from Kristen Chaffin & Dr. Greg Newby

what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • An internet is a set of computer networks that are connected to each other
  • The Internet is a world-wide set of networks that interoperate using TCP/IP protocols
    • Think of “communication software” or “standards” when you see “protocol”
    • more on TCP/IP and other protocols later…
  • A loosely controlled anarchy
history of the internet
History of the Internet
  • From a DARPA research project…
  • To an NSF-sponsored research project...
  • To a full "production" global infrastructure
internet timeline
Internet Timeline
  • Hobbes' Internet Timeline v4.1
  • Internet Society's Listings
history of internet
History of Internet
  • In the 1960’s the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) wanted to develop a network that would connect geographically diverse, heterogenous computers.
    • 1969 -- 4 sites are connected in the original ARPAnet demonstration
  • To expand this network, standards were necessary.
    • 1974 --First TCP/IP protocols
    • By 1983, the use of TCP/IP had been mandated by the Secretary of Defense
history of internet6
History of Internet
  • 1980 --ARPAnet becomes backbone for Internet
  • 1986 --NSF takes over and NSFNET becomes the backbone.
  • 1992 --WWW emerges
  • 1994 --NSF ceases funding and commercial industry moves in
  • 1998 --WWW is ubiquitous in the United States and other countries
tcp ip
TCP/IP
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
  • Provides reliable, in-order, end-to-end transmission of data.
  • All Internet applications use TCP/IP
ip internet protocol
IP (Internet Protocol)
  • A set of rules for communicating
  • The IP specifies the host and destination Internet address ("IP address") and describes the content of each packet.
  • The IP is in the midst of an upgrade for better handing of multimedia, quality of service (QoS), and better security. [Internet2]
networking structure the layered approach
Networking “Structure” The Layered approach
  • Applications:Web Clients, PC Apps, …
  • Services Naming: Mail, File Transfer
  • Conventions: Protocols, Standards
  • Physical: Wire, Routers, Hosts
who creates standards
Who Creates Standards?
  • Internet Society (ISOC)
    • To promote evolution and growth of Internet
  • Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
    • Technical oversight and coordination
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
    • IETF develops Internet standards - internet protocols
    • Called RFCs (Request for Comments)
  • Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
    • To promote research of importance to the evolution of the future Internet
internet applications include
Internet Applications Include
  • Telnet
  • FTP [File Transfer Protocol]
  • E-mail
  • Gopher, Veronica, Archie, Jughead- [old]
  • Usenet Newsgroups
  • IRC (Inter-Relay Chat)
  • MUDs (Multi-User Dimensions)
  • MOOs (Mud-Object Oriented)
  • WWW (World Wide Web)
internet applications
Internet Applications
  • Different applications use different protocols, in addition to TCP/IP [http; ftp; telnet]
  • Most are based on client-server model
important concepts
Important Concepts
  • host - a computer that is connected to the Internet
    • has an IP address that uniquely identifies it
    • Example: 152.2.81.100
    • has a domain
  • domain - a grouping of networked computers
    • Example: unc.edu
  • client - asks for a service
  • server - provides a service
important concepts15
Important Concepts
  • Adresses vs. Names
  • DNS is Domain Name Service
    • the DNS server stores name/address pairs which are used for ‘host lookups’
  • Domain Names are registered with ICANN (formerly by IANA)
  • Domain Names registration services in the .com, .net, and .org domains are provided by Network Solutions, Inc (formerly InterNic).
  • Until this year InterNic was a “monopoly”. ICANN is running a testbed of five registrars of the new competitive Shared Registry System for the .com, .net, and .org domains. SeeISOC.
client server protocol relationship
Client/Server/Protocol Relationship
  • Client Initiates a Connection
  • Server Waits & Responds to Incoming Connections