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C OMPUTER ARCHITE C T U R E (for Erasmus students) Asso c. Prof. Stasys Maciulevičius C omputer Dept. sta sys. ma ciulevicius @ktu.lt stasys@ecdl.lt Our course Presentations - ifko.ktu.l t /~stama/CompArch/CompArchE.html Final grade : Simulation of o pera t io n using Small (20%)

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COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE(for Erasmus students)

Assoc.Prof.Stasys Maciulevičius

Computer Dept.

stasys.maciulevicius@ktu.lt

stasys@ecdl.lt


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Our course

  • Presentations - ifko.ktu.lt/~stama/CompArch/CompArchE.html

  • Final grade:

    • Simulation of operationusing Small (20%)

    • Abstract on computer architecture topics (20%)

    • Colloquium from 1stpart (processors)(30%)

    • Final exam from 2nd part (30%)

©S.Maciulevičius


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Coursware

  • J.L.Hennessy, D.A.Patterson. Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach. - Morgan Kaufman, San Mateo, CA, 1990, 1996, 2003

  • W.Stallings. Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance. - Prentice Hall Int., 2000

  • My presentations www.ifko.ktu.lt/~stama

  • Internet sites

©S.Maciulevičius


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Evolution ofcomputers

  • Increasing of performance

  • Decreasing of component size

  • Increasing of memory size

  • Increasing of input/output streams and bandwidth

    Important: balancing of performance between different components

©S.Maciulevičius


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We will study …

  • processors – main engine of computer

  • memory hierarchy

  • buses, connectingcomputer devices together

  • principles of input and output

    Looking through the prism of performance

©S.Maciulevičius


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Past and Present

Time before emergence of computers:

  • abacus

  • 1642, B.Pascal -the first mechanical computing device

  • 1673, G.Leibnitz -mechanical computing machine

  • 1822,Ch.Babbage -difference engine

  • 1854,G.Boole-book "The Laws of Thought "

©S.Maciulevičius


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Past and Present

Computer era begins

  • J.V.Atanasoff(USA, ABC computer ), K.Zuse(Germany, 1942), H.Aiken (USA, 1944)

  • John Eckert and John Mauchly invented the first general-purpose electronic digital computer (ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator

  • 1944 - John von Neumann described a computer architecture in which data and program memory are mapped into the same address space -“von Neumann architecture ”

©S.Maciulevičius


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Past and Present

Computer-era mid

  • IBM invested 5 billion USD and in1964 anounced system IBM/360:

    • (allmost) same instruction set

    • (allmost) same operating system

    • increasing speed

    • increasing memory

©S.Maciulevičius


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Past and Present

IBM System/360

©S.Maciulevičius


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Past and Present

Further....

  • 1965 - DEC PDP-8 - first commercial minicomputer (round$20 000)

  • 1971–first microprocessor (Intel 4004)

  • 1973 -Gary Kildall presents operating system CP/M (Control Program/Monitor or Control Program for Microcomputer ).

  • 1981 IBM presentsIBM 5150 PC (4.77-MHz Intel 8088 CPU, 64KB RAM, 40KB ROM, one 5.25” floppy discand PC-DOS 1.0), beyond$3000

  • 1985 m. Microsoft presents Microsoft Windows 1.0, beyond$100.

    etc.

©S.Maciulevičius


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Parametrs of somecomputers

©S.Maciulevičius


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Parametrs of somecomputers

©S.Maciulevičius


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Tendences

Technology

Transistor countin chip grows quickly – duplicates every 3 years

Frequence grows relatively slowly

©S.Maciulevičius


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Von Neumann architecture

  • While consulting for the Moore School of Electrical Engineering on the EDVAC project, von Neumann wrote an incomplete set of notes titled the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC

  • The paper described a computer architecture in which data and program memory are mapped into the same address space

  • This architecture became the de facto standard and can be contrasted with a so-called Harvard architecture, which has separate program and data memories on a separate bus

©S.Maciulevičius


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Von Neumann architecture

©S.Maciulevičius


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Instruction processor

Data processor

Input/ output processor

Communication device (bus)

Memory

Von Neumann architecture

Some another drawing:

©S.Maciulevičius


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Von Neumann architecture

  • Todayinstructionand data processors are combined into single unit – central processing unit (CPU).

©S.Maciulevičius


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data bus 1

addres bus

RN

AR

AC

T

IR

PC

M

R1

DR

ALU

data bus2

Instructionprocessor

Data processor

Structure of computer

More mindful look intothe computer inside alowws us to present such a possible view:

©S.Maciulevičius


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Structure of computer

Here are:

  • AC - accumulator – special register for storing (keeping) of data to be processed (operand) and operation result,

  • T - register for temporare storing of data (second operand),

  • IR- instruction register,

  • PC - program counter;it indicates address of instructionto be executed,

  • M - memory,

  • AR - memoryaddress register,

  • DR - memorydata register

©S.Maciulevičius


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Executing of instruction

Process of instruction executingcan be described more detailed as follows:

1. Fetch instruction from memory and write into instruction register IR

2. Change content of PC

3. Determinetype of fetched instruction

4. If data to be processed are in memory, determinetheir location

5. If needed, select data from memoryand transfer them to CPU registers

6. Execute operation specified by instruction

7. Write results into appropriate place

8. Return back to 1ststep for execution of next instruction

©S.Maciulevičius


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Input

device

Main

memory

Output

device

Programand

Initial data

Results

External

memory

Processor

Structureof first generation computers

Processor acts as centralcontrol device: CPU interprets program and executes instructions; manages the initial data input and output of results also

©S.Maciulevičius


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CPU

Main

memory

Console

Output

module

Input

module

External

memory

Common Bus

Structureof second generation computers

All components of systemos are connected together using common bus

This allows simply add new modules. However, the common bus - a narrow point in the system which limits the system's performance

©S.Maciulevičius


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Structureof third generation computers

IO

IO

CPU

Main

memory

Chan-

nel

Chan-

nel

MD

MT

Information processing is separated from information input and output. Data input and output (exchanging with external memory as well) is controlled by special devices cold channels orinput/output processors

Processor interprets program and executesinstructions,and controls channel functioning

©S.Maciulevičius


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Input

device

Output

device

CPU

Main

memory

Control-

ler

Control-

ler

Common Bus

DMA

channel

Timer

External

memory

Structureof first personal computers

©S.Maciulevičius


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Structureof personal computers

Cache

CPU

Main

memory

Graphics

Bridge 1

Hard disk

Bridge 2

Output

device

Input

device

Input

device

LAN

Output

device

©S.Maciulevičius


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New structureof personal computers

CPU

Main

memory

Graphics

Bridge 1

Hard disk

Bridge 2

Output

device

Input

device

Input

device

LAN

Output

device

©S.Maciulevičius


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CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

LAN, IDE, USB, ...

Memory and IO controllers

LAN, SCSI

PCI-X 64/133

PCI-X 64/66

IO adapters

Main memory modules

Modern servers

©S.Maciulevičius


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Some principles used in development of modern computers

Developers of modern processorsare keeping the following principles:

  • Execution of instructions is controlled by hardware. Previously, execution of complex and long instructions were realized using principle of microprogramming: every instruction was realized by sequence of microcommands (microcommand is analog of instruction at lower level; as the program consists of a sequence of instructions, soinstruction consists of a sequence of microcommands). Microprogramms are usefull in realizationof complex and rarely used instructions.

  • Processor executes severalinstructions in parallel. Parallel execution of instructions increases processor productivity greatly

©S.Maciulevičius


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Some principles used in development of modern computers

  • Instructions should be easilydecoded. During decoding of instructions there are determined what resources they need, what operations should be executed, where are data to be processed. Therefore, the number of formats used for instructions encoding is reduced, the same instruction word length will be used, reducing the number of fields is reduced as well

  • Processor should have a large number ofregisters. A large number of registers (at least 32) helps to reduce the number of memory read and write operations (storing intermediate results in registers). As the access to memory requires much more time than the access to register, registers use significantly increases processor productivity

©S.Maciulevičius


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Classification of computers

According to use for:

  • scientific calculations,

  • commerce,

  • laboratory,

  • processcontrol,

  • office,

  • home,

  • travel (compact PC).

©S.Maciulevičius


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Classification of computers

According to size:

  • homecomputers,

  • personal computers (desktop),

  • workstations,

  • minicomputers,

  • mainframes,

  • supercomputers

©S.Maciulevičius


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Supercomputers

Supercomputers are usedespecially for complex calculations(so calledGrand Callenge problems), knowledge banksand networked data bases

Supercomputers are build:

  • as particularly productive specially designed computers,

  • using thousands of processors (multiprocessors),

  • using specialconnected systems of computers (cluster and grid)

©S.Maciulevičius


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TOP 500: June 2008

©S.Maciulevičius


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IBMRoadrunner

IBM Roadrunner is build using processors of different type:

AMD 1,8 GHz dual-core Opteron (6562 CPUs) and

IBM 3,2 GHz PowerXCell 8i (12240 CPUs; they were designed for game computers Sony PlayStation 3)

Blade modules (TriBlades) are connected using Infiniband (length of opticalwires – 55 miles)

TriBlade modulehas two dual-core Opteronsand four Cell 8i CPUs

Main memory – 98 TB

296 racks, 560 m2 (6,000 sq ft); weigth - 226 t. Cost - 133 mln USD

Power 2.35 MW, effectiveness - 437 Mflops/W

©S.Maciulevičius


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IBMRoadrunner

©S.Maciulevičius


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Blue Gene/L

©S.Maciulevičius


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June 2009: TOP 500

©S.Maciulevičius


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Mainframes

Mainframes(large computers)are build forcomplex calculations, maintaining large groups of users,networked data bases

Classic large computers - systems IBM/360, IBM/370, IBM S/390

It seemed that the time of large computers has already passed, but IBM's company specialists argue that half of all data of world information systems must be kept in large computers

©S.Maciulevičius


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Minicomputers

Minicomputers as new classwerebuild immediately after the introducing IBM/360

It was a DEC PDP-8 machine, designed for small companies. DEC later produced the even more popular PDP-11 family of minicomputers

Minicomputer popularity quickly grew, so DEC has become the second company in the manufacture of computers (after IBM)

The minicomputer CM-1600 (it corresponds to PDP-11/34, but special processor wasadded)was designed and produced in Vilnius SKB SM and computer factory

©S.Maciulevičius


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Workstations

Workstationis a computer designed for professional work using computer network resources

Workstation can be summarized as follows: the computer, which satisfies some special needs upraisingfrom specific professional activities

It is more powerful as PC. In most cases it is intended for automated design

©S.Maciulevičius


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Personal computers

Personal computers(desktops) are build mainly for non-professional users, mostly working in an autonomous mode

But recently, when some of the work is done at home, they are used by professionals as well

Network computers are less powerfull personal computers with small memory (sometimes diskless) for usingin computer network

©S.Maciulevičius


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Reached margins

1 Gigaflop mark was exceeded in 1987 - CRAY-2/4-256 system demonstrated performance 1.4 Gflops rate (system has 4 Cray processors running at 243 MHz)

1 Teraflopmark was exceeded in 1998 - ASCI Blue Mountain system demonstrated performance 1,6 Tflops (system has 6144 MIPS R10000 CPUs running at 250 MHz)

1 Petaflopmark was exceeded in 2008 - IBM Roadrunner

©S.Maciulevičius