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L e c t u r e 1 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

L e c t u r e 1 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

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L e c t u r e 1 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

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  1. English for Academic PurposesBSc 1 and Erasmus StudentsIng. Alan Westcott(Dr. Karl Seeley, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY) L e c t u r e 1 ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

  2. English for Academic Purposes • Attendance to classes (lectures and seminars) is compulsory • You must attend at least 80% seminars to be allowed to sit for your EAP exam – do not forget to sign the attendance sheet at every seminar • If you do not sign your attendance, it counts as absence • You must be registered for the subject to be allowed to sit for the exam • Block lectures in other subjects which are presented in English, and for which you are registered, count as attendance in EAP • If you are sick, you must bring a doctor‘s certificate • The Christmas holiday (break) starts on 23 December 2010 and ends on 3 January 2011  The semester starts on 29. 09. 2010 and ends on 07. 01. 2011 • For more details see the CULS Academic Calendar at: http://www.czu.cz/en/?r=1714

  3. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES October 4: Introduction, origins of English October 11: Varieties of English; writing essays October 18: Definite and indefinite articles, punctuation First writing due October 25

  4. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • What is it ?

  5. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES = EAP • What is EAP ? It is a type of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) • English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is a specialised area of teachingEnglish languagewith many types, such as: 1. Academic English 2. Business English 3. Technical English 4. Scientific English 5. Legal English 6. English for medical professionals 7. Aviation English (ESP taught to pilots and air traffic controllers and radio communications) There are also specialised classes of English for tourism, waiters, sport and many other areas of professional activities.

  6. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • ESP is taught in many universitiesaround the world. Many professional associations of teachers of English (TESOL, IATEFL) have ESP sections. • Much attention is devoted to ESP course design • ESP teaching has much in common with English as a Foreign or Second Language and English for Academic Purposes (EAP). • Quickly developing Business English can be considered as part of a larger concept of English for Specific Purposes.

  7. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • What is the purpose of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) ? • EAP trains students, usually in Higher Education, to use English language appropriately for study • in EAP you will practise vocabulary and grammar • and the four skills: 1. reading (selected texts each week) 2. writing (2 – 3 essays) 3. speaking - including standard pronunciation 4. and listening • you will acquire study skills and you will learn about differences in educational culture, for example, what counts as plagiarism.

  8. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • At this university we use British English because we are part of and live in Europe • In Cambridge tests – must choose either GB or US English – if you mix the two = failed exam • We shouldnot worry about our accents – we should be proud of our nationalities • But we should worry about our pronunciation – because we want other people to understand what we are saying • And you want to be able to understand what other people are saying

  9. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • This EAP subject involves 1. practical classes – seminars, in which you will practise the four skills of English usage • and 2. lectures in which you will learn about the history, background and importance of English language

  10. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES English is a Germanic language which belongs to the Indo-European Family oflanguages. • English evolved form Old Norse and Saxon. • The closest languages to English are those in the Germanic Branch: • German • Dutch then: • Swedish - has tones, which is unusual in European languages • Norwegian • Danish • Icelandic - the least changed of the Germanic languages, it is close to Old Norse

  11. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • Other related Germanic languages are: • Flemish and Afrikaans = varieties of Dutch • Yiddish = variety of German (which is written using Hebrew script) • German has a system of four cases and three genders for its nouns. Case is the property where a noun takes a different ending depending on its role in a sentence. An example in English: lady, lady's, ladies and ladies'. • The genders in German are masculine, feminine and neuter.

  12. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • English has lost gender and (almost entirely) lost case. • I see her. • She sees me. • Only a few words form their plurals like German ox  oxen child  children man  men woman  women • Most words in English now form the plural by adding an "s", having been influenced by Norman French

  13. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES QUESTION: Which language is spoken by the highest number of people in the world ?

  14. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES ANSWER ? • It depends what sources of information you use. • Many countries do not have accurate population numbers or data on the languages the different sections of the populations speak. • And many countries try to emphasise the importance of their own language.

  15. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES HISTORY AND IMPORTANCE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE • How many people around the world speak English?

  16. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • ENGLISH is the most widely distributed language in the world. • English is used either as the main or one of the official languages in 105 countries around the world, which include USA, UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India (with 1.1 billion people), Hong Kong, South Africa

  17. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES What is the range of estimates of speakers of various languages byUNESCO: • English 1 billion speakers • Chinese Mandarin 1 billion speakers • Hindi (with Urdu) in India 500 million • Spanish(remember: Brazil speaks Portuguese) 450 million • Russian 326 million • Arabic 250million • French, German 125 million (each)

  18. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • And how many people speak Portuguese? • The official estimate ranges from 160 to 188 million speakers. • The population of Portugal is only 10,600,000, but the population of Brazil, the largest Portuguese speaking country in the world, is about 190,000,000 people, plus there are former Portuguese colonies in Africa and China (Macau). • Thus we can assume that there are about 200 million people in the world who speak Portuguese.

  19. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • English is now the most widely spread language in the world, particularly in business, trade and travel and, especially in computers. • Chinese also has many speakers, but the vast majority are in China. It is not a world language. • Why people use English? • Probably because it is a very adaptable language with some 600 thousand terms.

  20. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSESEnglish as a world language • Usage of English • Mandarin Chinese is spoken by about 750 million to 1 billion people (depending on the source of your information), more than any other language in the world (not all Chinese can speak Mandarin) • But try to see how far it gets you in Rome, Madrid or Stockholm, or even Buenos Aires or Johannesburg on the other side of the globe. • By comparison, English is the most global of languages and most important language in the world today: • Two thirds of all scientific papers are published in English (The Economist) • Nearly half of all business deals in Europe are conducted in English (The Story of English) 3. More than 70% of the world's mail is written and addressed in English

  21. “Lingua franca” • A “bridge language” used by people with different languages • From Latin, “free language,” described a commercial language in the eastern Mediterranean • Europe’s first lingua franca : Latin

  22. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/ancientfilmCC304/lecture21/detail.php?linenum=4http://www.utexas.edu/courses/ancientfilmCC304/lecture21/detail.php?linenum=4

  23. “Lingua franca” • Latin for “French language” • In English, refers to a language in which people with different languages can communicate • Europe’s first lingua franca : Latin • Persisted in diplomacy, universities • Lingua franca itself arose from the needs of trade • Based on Italian, because Italians dominated eastern Mediterranean trade

  24. French as a lingua franca • France the dominant power in Europe from 17th to 19th centuries • Educated Europeans routinely comfortable in French • In 18th-19th century Russia, many aristocrats preferred French to “peasant” Russian • Large passages of Tolstoy’s War and Peace are written in French

  25. German as a lingua franca • Many native speakers

  26. http://www.wall-maps.com/Classroom/HISTORY/World/Cultures&RacesOfEurope1889.gifhttp://www.wall-maps.com/Classroom/HISTORY/World/Cultures&RacesOfEurope1889.gif

  27. German as a lingua franca • Many native speakers • Extensive trade connections (Hansa)

  28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Extent_of_the_Hansa.jpg

  29. German as a lingua franca • Many native speakers • Extensive trade connections (Hansa) • Political dominance in central Europe

  30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Austria_Hungary_ethnic.svg

  31. German as a lingua franca • Many native speakers • Extensive trade connections (Hansa) • Political dominance in central Europe • A major language of scientific literature • Until World War II

  32. Russian as a lingua franca • Many native speakers • Expansion of Russian Empire

  33. http://www.wall-maps.com/Classroom/HISTORY/World/ExpansionOfRussianEmpire187.gifhttp://www.wall-maps.com/Classroom/HISTORY/World/ExpansionOfRussianEmpire187.gif

  34. Russian as a lingua franca • Many native speakers • Expansion of Russian Empire • Political dominance in eastern central Europe

  35. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Bloc

  36. English as a lingua franca • Global spread of the British Empire

  37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_British_Empire.png

  38. English as a lingua franca • Global spread of the British Empire • Leading British role in the Industrial Revolution • British writing in economics admired by “progressives” throughout Europe • US military dominance, since World War II

  39. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_military_bases_in_the_world.svghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:US_military_bases_in_the_world.svg

  40. Saudi Arabia • Eskan Village Air Base • King Abdul Aziz Air Base, Dhahran • King Fahd Air Base, Taif • King Khalid Air Base, Khamis Mushayt • Riyadh Air Base, Riyadh • South Korea • Kunsan Air Base • Osan Air Base • Kyrgyzstan • Transit Center at Manas, Bishkek • The Netherlands • Joint Force Command Brunssum • Portugal • Lajes Field, Azores • Spain • Morón Air Base, Andalusia • Morón de la Frontera, Andalusia • Turkey • Incirlik Air Base • United Kingdom • RAF Lakenheath, Brandon, Suffolk • RAF Menwith Hill, Yorkshire Dales • RAF Mildenhall, Mildenhall • RAF Croughton, Upper Heyford • RAF Alconbury, Cambridgeshire • US Air Force Bases outside U.S. • Afghanistan • Bagram Air Base • Shindand Airbase • Kandahar International Airport • Bulgaria • Bezmer Air Base • Graf Ignatievo Air Base • Germany • Ansbach • NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen, Geilenkirchen, Germany • Ramstein Air Base • Spangdahlem Air Base • Greenland • Thule AB • Guam • Andersen Air Force Base • Italy • Aviano Air Base • Sigonella Naval Air Station • Camp Darby (Pisa-Livorno) • Japan • Kadena Air Base, Okinawa Prefecture • Misawa Air Base, Misawa, Aomori • Yokota Air Base, Tokyo • Qatar • Al Udeid Air Base

  41. Iraq • Italy • Caserma Ederle, Vicenza • Camp Darby, Pisa-Livorno • Japan • Camp Zama, Tokyo • Torii Station, Okinawa • Fort Buckner, Okinawa • Kuwait • Kosovo • South Korea • Israel • The Dimona Radar Facility is an American-operated radar base in the Negev, staffed by 120 US military personnel.[1] • The Port of Haifa maintains facilities for the United States Sixth Fleet. • Two War Reserve Stocks are located in Israel. • US Army Bases outside U.S. • Bulgaria • Aytos Logistics Center • Novo Selo Range • Germany • Campbell Barracks, Heidelberg • Conn Barracks, Ledward Barracks, Schweinfurt • Vilseck • Grafenwoehr • Landstuhl • Vogelweh • Patrick Henry Village • ROB • Kapaun • Stuttgart • Bamberg • Mannheim • Baumholder

  42. British Indian Ocean Territory • Diego Garcia • Brazil • Sao Paolo, Naval Support Detachment • Cuba • Guantanamo Bay Naval Base • Spain • Rota Naval Station • Japan • United States Fleet Activities Yokosuka • United States Fleet Activities Sasebo • Naval Air Facility Atsugi • Naval Forces Japan, Okinawa • Guam • Naval Base Guam • Bahrain • Naval Support Activity Bahrain • Naval Detachment Dubai • Italy • Naval Support Activity Naples, 6th fleet/Command Navy EuropeU.S. 6th Fleet • Naval Air Station Sigonella • Naval Support Activity Geata • Greece • Naval Support Activity Souda Bay, Souda Bay, Crete • South Korea • Commander Naval Forces Korea Chinhae, South Korea • Afghanistan • Camp Dwyer • Camp Leatherneck • FOB Delaram • Germany • Camp Panzer Kaserne, Böblingen • Japan • Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, Okinawa. Note: these camps are dispersed throughout Okinawa, but still under the administration of the SDB complex. • Camp Courtney • Camp Foster • Camp Gonsalves (Jungle Warfare Training Center) • Camp Hansen • Camp Kinser • Camp Lester • Camp McTureous • Camp Schwab • Marine Corps Air Station Futenma, Okinawa • Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Yamaguchi Prefecture • Camp Fuji, Shizuoka Prefecture • Yomitan Auxiliary Airfield • Kuwait • Camp Arifjan, Kuwait City • Kuwait • Camp Arifjan, Kuwait City US Navy bases outside the U.S. US Marine Corps bases outside the U.S.

  43. US economic weight • After World War II, U.S. produced 46% of global GDP1 • U.S. built up for war-time production • Didn’t suffer damage to its industry 1: http://hir.harvard.edu/energy/us-economic-power

  44. GDP of major WWII combatants in international dollars, 1990 prices http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_production_during_World_War_II

  45. US economic weight • After World War II, U.S. produced 46% of global GDP1 • U.S. built up for war-time production • Didn’t suffer damage to its industry • As of 2008, down to 21%2 • Still the largest single economy if EU is not counted as one economy • And there are other English-speaking economies 1: http://hir.harvard.edu/energy/us-economic-power 2: http://www.econstats.com/weo/V012.htm

  46. Cultural influence • Hollywood sells globally • American pop music is the most widespread • British also play major role • Is American pop culture inherently broadest appeal? • Or is there an interaction among economic, military, and cultural power?

  47. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • English is the most studied and emulated (imitated) language in the world. It has such an enormous influence it has affected other languages. • When the BBC English-teaching series Follow Me was first broadcast in China it had audiences of up to 100 million people

  48. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES • Influence of English - English words are everywhere: • Germans speak of die Teenagers and das Walkout • German politicians tell German journalists "No comment" • Italian women put col cream on their faces • Romanians ride on trolleybus • Spaniards, when they are cold, put a sueter on • Almost everyone in the world speaks on the telephone, the telefoon or telefon

  49. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSESEnglish as a world language Problems with English • The main problem with English is its confusing pronunciation, i.e. the lack of standard pronunciation. The only certain thing about English pronunciation is that it is that there is almost nothing certain about it: A) thesame spelling can have more than one pronunciation and meanings: • minute – [minit] = unit of time • minute – [my-newt] = very small, tiny • bow – [bou] = a weapon shooting arrows - bow - [bau] = to bend down as a form of greeting B) different words can have the same pronunciation but different meanings • to [tu:] = direction, 3rd case (dative) …go to school…infinitive • (“To be or not to be”) • too [tu:] = …too much…, also: … we went there, too. • two [tu:] = a number

  50. ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSESEnglish as a world language C) words with similar spellinghaving different pronunciation: • heard – beard • road – broad • five – give • early – dearly • beau – beauty • steak – streak • ache – moustache • low – how • doll – droll • scour – four • grieve – sieve • paid – said • break - speak