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Anabolic Metabolism. Metabolism is the transformation of energy and matter within the body. Anabolism ~ constructive metabolism Energy IS Required (ATP) ATP~ nucleotide ~ Major energy currency. Provides substances needed for growth and repair.
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Substrate + Enzyme Enzyme- Product + Enzyme
ATP is an energy-yielding molecule that is used mainly by the mitochondrion for the cell to have energy. When the mitochondrion receives energy from an outside source, such as nutrients received from sugars (mainly glucose) and proteins, the mitochondrion breaks down these materials into simpler molecules, then reattaches them to special chemical bonds named adenosine triphosphate, which is used by the cell to perform tasks, such as the continuing breakdown of nutrients that enter the cell or for other organelles to do their functions that keep the cell alive.
Electrons are what fuel the process of ATP. Coenzymes receive and take electrons away from six-carbon molecules producing 2 three-carbon molecules. The electrons are accepted by an ion in mitochondrion called NAD+ which is then turned into G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate). The broken down sugar’s bonds are rearranged by glycolytic reaction, which produces only a small amount of ATP. A Glycolytic reaction is a weak reaction that is only capable of capturing about 2% of the available energy that is released from glucose during the ATP synthesis. After the energy is released from the ATP molecules, electrons are released from it, creating ADP molecules, which are then returned to the mitochondrion to be used again for ATP synthesis.
ATP is mostly used by the cell to maintain life and to perform basic functions such as movement and mitosis, but the ATP produced by the mitochondrion is also used by the mitochondrion so that it is able to break down other nutrients taken in by the cell.
(This image shows the build up and breakdown of glucose, and how ATP supplies energy and phosphates to continue the procedure
ATP - the Release of Chemical Energy cont.
- Add two phosphate groups to glucose.
- requires ATP, but primes molecule for energy releasing reactions
- One 6 carbon glucose in split into two 3 carbon glucoses.
- NADH is made.
- 4 ADP is turned into 4 ATP.
- Pyruvic acid is made
One ATP produced for each cycle.
First in mitoch.
Produsces co2 and ATP
Sends molecules of energy to electron transport chain so they can produce majority of energy in H20
Lots of enzymes needed
Lots have to occur for cell. Resp. to occur correctly
Reference pg. 119 Fig. 4.9 in textbook
Protons are translocated across the membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space
Cellular Respiration is the process that releases energy from molecules such as glucose and makes it available for cellular use
Occurs in 3 series of reactions: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain -> products of these reactions include CO2, H2O, and energy (38 molecules of ATP)
Includes aerobic reactions (requires oxygen) and anaerobic reactions (doesn’t require oxygen)
Glycolysis- the 6-carbon sugar glucose is broken down in the cytosol into two 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules with a net gain of 2 ATP and the release of high-energy electrons
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)- The 3-carbon pyruvic acids generated by glycolysis enter the mitochondria. Each loses a carbon (generating CO2) and is combined with a coenzyme to form a 2-carbon acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA). More high-energy electrons released
Each acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon oxaloacetic acid to form the 6-carbon citric acid. For each citric acid, a series of reactions removes 2 carbons (generating two CO2’s), synthesizes 1 ATP, and releases more high-energy electrons.
Electron Transport Chain- the high-energy electrons still contain most of the chemical energy of the original glucose molecule. Special carrier molecules bring the high-energy electrons to a series of enzymes that convert much of the remaining energy to more ATP molecules. The other products are heat and water.
Image of Cellular Respiration ->
Cycle: Digestion turns proteins into amino acids. Then the liver takes the amino acids through deamination which removes the nitrogen and sends it to the kidneys. Then amino acids are decomposed or transferred to several different places. Some lead to the formation of acetyl coenzyme a, or go straight to steps of citric acid cycles. If not used in cycle or captured by ATP molecules then it forms glucose, fat, or goes to other uses. The glucose comes from protein catabolism going through gluconeogenesis to be part of blood glucose. Other proteins are saved and used for structural proteins which build/ repair tissues; Enzymes which control metabolic rate, clotting factors, keratins of skin and hair, elastin and collagen of connective tissue; Hormones; or Plasma Proteins which regulate water balance and muscle components actin and myosin.
Purpose: Important because they form muscle and connective tissues, and make antibodies to fight infections. Amino Acids are used to make protein molecules as specified by DNA base sequences. Also provides energy through helping with ATP and Acetyl coenzyme A.
B. Catabolic - used to store energy
There is excess glucose in cells that enter anabolic carbohydrate
* The liver and muscles cells do that best job of storing carbohydrates
*When the glucose level is low, glucose is then released into the blood.
Chromosomes are long molecules of D.N.A and protein
Mitosis passes info of D.N.A to the new cell
Genetic information tells the cell how to construct proteins and what the proteins jobs are.
Gene: a particular part of your D.N.A strands that contains genetic info.
Because enzymes control synthesis reactions, the 4 organic molecule( lipids, carbohydrates, protein,& nucleic acids) depends on protein, therefore needs genetic info to synthesis.
Genome: is the set of genetic info in a cell
Not all humans have genome proteins encoded.
What is Genetic Code?
1. It is universal.
2. It’s made up of base triplet.
3. The common bases:
4. Genetic codes are read like a sentence.
5.Definition: The Information for synthesizing proteins that is encoded in the DNA sequence.
6. The genetic code plays an important role in protein synthesis, messenger RNA, and extremely precise and specific.
Base triplet- codon
C,G,A,T, U (RNA)
DNA has to be replicated in order for the cell to synthesize the proteins necessary to build cellular parts and carry on metabolism.
*DNA Replication occurs during Interphase of the Cell Cycle.
By: Yadira Kawaguchi
is the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA.
Transcription happens in the cell nucleus where the DNA is because the DNA cannot leave the nucleus. (The RNA is produced in the nucleolus.)
*The steps of PCR are completed using an automated device called a thermal cycler that controls key temp. changes
Strengths: it is used to work on crucial samples of rare and short DNA sequences
Weaknesses: *super sensitive to fine detail which could lead to a false positive result
*it is limited in that user must know sequence to be amplified; can lead to mutations