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Genetics and Genetic Engineering

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  1. Genetics and Genetic Engineering

  2. terms • agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments

  3. centrifuge • device for separating substances on the basis of density

  4. clones • organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source

  5. complementary • containing structures that match or bond with related structures

  6. electrophoresis • technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field

  7. Excise • to remove a part by a process similar to cutting

  8. Expression • the appearance of a trait directed by a gene

  9. Genetic code • a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction

  10. Genetic Engineering • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

  11. Genetics • science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another

  12. Host • a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source

  13. Hybrid • offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup

  14. Ligase • enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA

  15. Molecular weight • sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule

  16. Mutation • a heritable change in genetic makeup

  17. Nucleotides • building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base

  18. Plasmid • a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA

  19. Polymerase • an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid

  20. Recombinant DNA • DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering

  21. Restriction enzyme • restriction endonuclease • enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites

  22. sequence • order of nucleotides or amino acids

  23. template • a pattern used for developing a complementary structure

  24. trait • a characteristic resulting from gene expression

  25. transform • to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA

  26. vector • an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell

  27. Living material • Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction

  28. Complex Organism • higher organism • an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit • ex. Plants, animals, humans

  29. Organ • arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism • leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.

  30. Tissue • arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ

  31. Cell • smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes

  32. Basic Cell structures • cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact

  33. cell membrane • delicate structure that surrounds the cell

  34. chloroplasts • site of photosynthesis in plant cells • contain some DNA

  35. Cytoplasm • cell fluid containing all cell structures

  36. Nucleus • control center of a cell • contains most of the DNA

  37. Chromosomes • structures that are physical carriers of genes • made p of DNA • are located in cell nucleus

  38. Mitochondria • energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm • contain some DNA

  39. Plasmid • extra chromosomal piece of DNA • located in the cell cytoplasm

  40. Ribosome • site where new proteins are produced • result of genetic expression

  41. Cell reproduction • mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells • increases by simple division • chromosomes remain paired during cell division

  42. meiosis • occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)

  43. meiosis • increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual

  44. meiosis • one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair • each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes

  45. Genetic engineering • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

  46. Genetic engineering • movement of a gene from one organism to another

  47. Other names • recombinant DNA technology • recombinant DNA science • gene transfer • gene splicing gene cloning

  48. Naturally occurring • alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment

  49. Naturally occurring • some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell

  50. Naturally occurring • natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation