Genetics and genetic engineering
1 / 55

Genetics and Genetic Engineering - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Genetics and Genetic Engineering. terms. agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments . centrifuge. device for separating substances on the basis of density. clones.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Genetics and Genetic Engineering' - MartaAdara

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Terms l.jpg

  • agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments

Centrifuge l.jpg

  • device for separating substances on the basis of density

Clones l.jpg

  • organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source

Complementary l.jpg

  • containing structures that match or bond with related structures

Electrophoresis l.jpg

  • technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field

Excise l.jpg

  • to remove a part by a process similar to cutting

Expression l.jpg

  • the appearance of a trait directed by a gene

Genetic code l.jpg
Genetic code

  • a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction

Genetic engineering l.jpg
Genetic Engineering

  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

Genetics l.jpg

  • science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another

Slide12 l.jpg

  • a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source

Hybrid l.jpg

  • offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup

Ligase l.jpg

  • enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA

Molecular weight l.jpg
Molecular weight

  • sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule

Mutation l.jpg

  • a heritable change in genetic makeup

Nucleotides l.jpg

  • building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base

Plasmid l.jpg

  • a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA

Polymerase l.jpg

  • an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid

Recombinant dna l.jpg
Recombinant DNA

  • DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering

Restriction enzyme l.jpg
Restriction enzyme

  • restriction endonuclease

  • enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites

Sequence l.jpg

  • order of nucleotides or amino acids

Template l.jpg

  • a pattern used for developing a complementary structure

Trait l.jpg

  • a characteristic resulting from gene expression

Transform l.jpg

  • to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA

Vector l.jpg

  • an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell

Living material l.jpg
Living material

  • Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction

Complex organism l.jpg
Complex Organism

  • higher organism

  • an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit

  • ex. Plants, animals, humans

Organ l.jpg

  • arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism

  • leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.

Tissue l.jpg

  • arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ

Slide31 l.jpg

  • smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes

Basic cell structures l.jpg
Basic Cell structures

  • cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact

Cell membrane l.jpg
cell membrane

  • delicate structure that surrounds the cell

Chloroplasts l.jpg

  • site of photosynthesis in plant cells

  • contain some DNA

Cytoplasm l.jpg

  • cell fluid containing all cell structures

Nucleus l.jpg

  • control center of a cell

  • contains most of the DNA

Chromosomes l.jpg

  • structures that are physical carriers of genes

  • made p of DNA

  • are located in cell nucleus

Mitochondria l.jpg

  • energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm

  • contain some DNA

Plasmid39 l.jpg

  • extra chromosomal piece of DNA

  • located in the cell cytoplasm

Ribosome l.jpg

  • site where new proteins are produced

  • result of genetic expression

Cell reproduction l.jpg
Cell reproduction

  • mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells

  • increases by simple division

  • chromosomes remain paired during cell division

Meiosis l.jpg

  • occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)

Meiosis43 l.jpg

  • increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual

Meiosis44 l.jpg

  • one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair

  • each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes

Genetic engineering45 l.jpg
Genetic engineering

  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule

Genetic engineering46 l.jpg
Genetic engineering

  • movement of a gene from one organism to another

Other names l.jpg
Other names

  • recombinant DNA technology

  • recombinant DNA science

  • gene transfer

  • gene splicing gene cloning

Naturally occurring l.jpg
Naturally occurring

  • alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment

Naturally occurring49 l.jpg
Naturally occurring

  • some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell

Naturally occurring50 l.jpg
Naturally occurring

  • natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation

Scientific gen eng l.jpg
Scientific Gen eng.

  • Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another

Scientific gen eng52 l.jpg
Scientific Gen eng.

  • Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources

Scientific gen eng53 l.jpg
Scientific Gen eng.

  • Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites

  • cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms

Scientific gen eng54 l.jpg
Scientific Gen eng.

  • The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms